Meta-analysis is used to compare the patterns of the tree and the herb layers in a Central-European deciduous hardwood forest. Vegetation patterns are represented by distance matrices and dendrograms. The significance of the relation between the patterns is evaluated through permutation (Mantel) tests and full randomization (Monte Carlo simulation) tests. The relationship between the two layers is significant but weak. When using ecological indicators as variables for characterising the herb layer, the relation is stronger. Distance matrices and dendrograms describe the vegetation pattern similarly. However, the results of pairwise tests of significance strongly depend on the “level” of comparisons, i.e., whether distance matrices or dendrograms are compared. This follows perhaps from the differences between permutation and full randomization tests.
herb data collected in the summer
herb data collected in the spring
basal area of the tree species
combined data of the herbs
frequency data of the ecological indices
abundance of the tree species
relative basal area of the tree species
range standardization. (For example, Euns98 refers to one distance matrix or one dendrogram obtained from species frequency data of the summer herb layer with Euclidean distance and without standardization. Euns98i refers to one distance matrix or one dendrogram obtained in the same way, but from the quadrats by ecological indicators data matrix
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Tobisch, T., Standovár, T. A comparison of vegetation patterns in the tree and herb layers of a hardwood forest. COMMUNITY ECOLOGY 6, 29–37 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1556/ComEc.6.2005.1.4
- Distance matrix
- Forest layers
- Full randomization tests
- Monte Carlo simulation
- Permutation tests