Historical links and new frontiers in the study of forest-atmosphere interactions

Abstract

Forest biomes have expanded and contracted in response to past climate fluctuations, but it is not clear how they will respond to human-induced atmospheric change. We provide a review of the literature, describing historical links between biogeographical and atmospheric patterns, comparing characteristics of forest biomes and describing expected changes in climate forcings from observed range shifts. Over the geological history, climate fluctuations prompted changes in forest distribution that, in turn, stabilized the atmosphere. Over the past century, warming-induced stress has caused widespread declines of mature forests, but new forests have expanded into open areas of boreal, tropical and temperate regions. Historically, forest expansion happened at much faster rates in cold than in warm regions. Across biomes, species interactions control the use of limiting resources, regulating community dynamics and expansion rates in response to climate variability. Modern impacts of land use change on the distribution of forest biomes are well understood, but the expansion of new forests and their role in stabilizing the atmosphere are yet to be accounted for in global models. Expansion of tropical and temperate forests would yield a negative climate forcing through increased carbon sequestration and evaporative cooling, but in the boreal region forest expansion could amplify climate warming due to changes in albedo. Although qualitative descriptions of forest-atmosphere interactions are possible based on existing records, the net climate forcing from forest range shifts remains uncertain. Three critical gaps in knowledge hinder rigorous evaluations of causality necessary to probe for linkages between climatic and biogeographical patterns: (i) reconstructions of vegetation dynamics have not sufficiently represented warm biomes; (ii) climate and vegetation dynamics are typically assessed at non-comparable scales; and (iii) single-proxies are normally used to simultaneously infer changes in climate and vegetation distribution, leading to redundancy in interpretation. Addressing these issues would improve our ability to decipher past and predict future outcomes of forest-atmosphere interactions.

Abbreviations

NPP:

Net primary productivity

YBP:

year before present

References

  1. Anand M., M. Leithead, L.C.R. Silva, C. Wagner, M.W. Ashiq, J. Cecile, I. Drobyshev, Y. Bergeron, A. Das and C. Bulger. 2013. The scientific value of the largest remaining old-growth red pine forests in North America. Biodivers. Conserv. 22: 1847–1861.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Anand, M., A. Gonzalez, F. Guichard, J. Kolasa and L. Parrott. 2010. Ecological systems as complex systems: challenges for an emerging science. Diversity 2: 395–410.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Anand, M. and B. Li. 2001. Spatiotemporal dynamics in a transition zone: Patchiness, scale, and an emergent property. Community Ecol. 2: 161–169.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Anand, M. and L. Orloci. 1997. Chaotic dynamics in a multispecies community. Environ. Ecol. Stat. 4: 337–344.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Anderson, R.G., J.G. Canadell, J.T. Randerson, R.B. Jackson, B.A. Hungate, D.D. Baldocchi, G.A. Ban-Weiss, G.B. Bonan, K. Caldeira, L. Cao, N.S. Diffenbaugh, K.R. Gurney, L.M. Kueppers, B.E. Law, S. Luyssaert and T.L. O’Halloran. 2011. Biophysical considerations in forestry for climate protection. Front. Ecol. Environ. 9: 174–182.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Arrigo, R.D., R. Wilson, B. Liepert and P. Cherubini. 2008. On the “Divergence Problem” in northern forests: A review of the tree-ring evidence and possible causes. Global Planet Change 60: 289–305.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Bala, G., K. Caldeira, M. Wickett, T. J. Phillips, D. B. Lobell, C. Delire and A. Mirin. 2007. Combined climate and carbon-cycle effects of large-scale deforestation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104: 6550–6555.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Beer, C., M. Reichstein, E. Tomelleri, P. Ciais, M. Jung, N. Carvalhais, C. Rodenbeck, M. Arain, D. Baldocchi and G. Bonan. 2010. Terrestrial gross carbon dioxide uptake: Global distribution and covariation with climate. Science 329: 834–838.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Behling, H. and V.D. Pillar. 2007. Late Quaternary vegetation, biodiversity and fire dynamics on the southern Brazilian highland and their implication for conservation and management of modern Araucaria forest and grassland ecosystems. Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. 362: 243–51.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Berner, R.A. and Z. Kothavala. 2001. GEOCARB III: A revised model of atmospheric CO2 over Phanerozoic time. Amer. J. Sci. 301: 182–204.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Bonan, G.B. 2008. Forests and climate change: forcings, feedbacks, and the climate benefits of forests. Science. 320: 1444–1449.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Borucke, M., D. Moore, G. Cranston, K. Gracey, K. Iha, J. Larson, E. Lazarus, J. C. Morales, M. Wackernagel and A. Galli. 2013. Accounting for demand and supply of the biosphere’s regenerative capacity: The National Footprint Accounts’ underlying methodology and framework. Ecol. Indic. 24: 518–533.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Boyd, A. 1992. Musopsis n. Gen.: A banana-like leaf genus from the early tertiary of eastern north greenland. Amer. J. Bot. 79: 1359–1367.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Buitenwerf, R., W.J. Bond, N. Stevens and W.S.W. Trollope. 2012. Increased tree densities in South African savannas: >50 years of data suggests CO2 as a driver. Global Change Biol. 18: 675–684.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Callaway, R.M. 1997. Positive interactions in plant communities and the individualistic-continuum concept. Oecologia 112: 143–149.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Callaway, R.M., R. Michalet, P. Choler, F. I. Pugnaireq, C. J. Lortie, R. Michalet, C. Armasq, D. Kikodze and B.J. Cook. 2002. Positive interactions among alpine plants increase with stress. Nature 417: 844–848.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  17. Choat, B., S. Jansen, T.J. Brodribb, H. Cochard, S. Delzon, R. Bhaskar, S.J. Bucci, T. S. Feild, S. M. Gleason, U.G. Hacke, A.L. Jacobsen, F. Lens, H. Maherali, J. Martínez-Vilalta, S. Mayr, M. Mencuccini, P.J. Mitchell, A. Nardini, J. Pittermann, R.B. Pratt, J.S. Sperry, M. Westoby, I.J. Wright and A.E. Zanne. 2012. Global convergence in the vulnerability of forests to drought. Nature 491: 752–755.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. Churkina, G. and S.W. Running. 1998. Contrasting climatic controls on the estimated productivity of global terrestrial biomes. Ecosystems 1: 206–215.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Duarte, L., M. Dos-Santos, S. Hartz and V.D. Pillar. 2006. Role of nurse plants in araucaria forest expansion over grassland in south Brazil. Austral. Ecol. 31: 520–528.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Finzi, A.C., D.J.P. Moore, E.H. DeLucia, J. Lichter, K.S. Hofmockel, R.B. Jackson, H.-S. Kim, R. Matamala, H.R. McCarthy, R. Oren, J.S. Pippen and W.H. Schlesinger. 2006. Progressive nitrogen limitation of ecosystem processes under elevated CO2 in a warm-temperate forest. Ecology 87: 15–25.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. Fluckiger, J., E. Monnin, B. Stauffer, J. Schwander, T.F. Stocker, J. Chappellaz, D. Raynaud and J.M.C. Barnola. 2002. High-resolution Holocene N2O ice core record and its relationship with CH4 and CO2. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 16: 1–8.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Franco A,C., Duarte, H.M., Geßler, A. et al. 2005. In situ measurements of carbon and nitrogen distribution and composition, photochemical efficiency and stable isotope ratios in Araucaria angustifolia. Trees 19: 422–430.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. Friis, E.M., P.R. Crane and K.R. Pedersen. 2011. Early Flowers and Angiosperm Evolution. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  24. Gedalof, Z. 2011. Climate and spatial patterns of wildfire. In: D. McKenzie, D. Falk and C. Miller (eds.), The Landscape Ecology of Fire. Springer, Berlin. pp. 89–116.

    Google Scholar 

  25. Gedalof, Z. and A.A. Berg. 2010. Tree ring evidence for limited direct CO2 fertilization of forests over the 20th century. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 24: 2–7.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. Gómez-Guerrero, A., Silva, L.C.R., Horwath, W.R., Barrera-Reyes, M., Kishchuk, B., Velázquez-Martínez, A., Trinidad-Hernández, T. and Plascencia-Escalante, O. 2013. Growth decline and divergent tree-ring isotopic composition (δ13C and δ18O) contradict predictions of CO2 stimulation in high altitudinal forests. Global Change Biol. 19: 1748–1758.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Grindrod, J. 1988. The palynology of Holocene mangrove and salt-marsh sediments. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol. 55: 229–245.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Gunderson, L.H. and C.S. Holling. 2002. Panarchy: Understanding Transformations in Human and Natural Systems. Island Press, Washington, D.C.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Gupta, A. 1993. The changing geomorphology of the humid tropics. Geomorphology 7: 165–186.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Higgins, S.I. and S. Scheiter. 2012. Atmospheric CO2 forces abrupt vegetation shifts locally, but not globally. Nature 488: 209–212.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  31. Hoffmann, W.A., E.L. Geiger, S.G. Gotsch, D.R. Rossatto, L.C.R. Silva, O.L. Lau, M. Haridasan and A.C. Franco. 2012. Ecological thresholds at the savanna-forest boundary: how plant traits, resources and fire govern the distribution of tropical biomes. Ecol. Lett. 15: 759–68.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  32. Honisch, B., A. Ridgwell, D.N. Schmidt, E. Thomas, S.J. Gibbs, A. Sluijs, R. Zeebe, L. Kump, R.C. Martindale, S.E. Greene, W. Kiessling, J. Ries, J.C. Zachos, D.L. Royer, S. Barker, T.M. Marchitto, R. Moyer, C. Pelejero, P. Ziveri, G.L. Foster and B. Williams. 2012. The geological record of ocean acidification. Science 335: 1058–1063.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. Jones, C., J. Lowe, S. Liddicoat and R. Betts. 2009. Committed terrestrial ecosystem changes due to climate change. Nat. Geosci. 2: 484–487.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  34. Kurz, W.A., C.C. Dymond, G. Stinson, G.J. Rampley, E.T. Neilson, A.L. Carroll, T. Ebata and L. Safranyik. 2008. Mountain pine beetle and forest carbon feedback to climate change. Nature 452: 2006–2009.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  35. Ladd, B., S.W. Laffan, W. Amelung, P.L. Peri, L.C.R. Silva, P. Gervassi, S.P. Bonser, M. Navall and D. Sheil. 2012. Estimates of soil carbon concentration in tropical and temperate forest and woodland from available GIS data on three continents. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 22: 461–469.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Lamy, F., and J. Kaiser. 2009. Glacial to Holocene paleoceanographic and continental paleoclimate reconstructions based on ODP Site 1233/GeoB 3313 off southern Chile. In: F. Vimeux, F. Sylvestre, and M. Khodri (eds.), Past Climate Variability in South America and Surrounding Regions. Developments in Paleoenvironmental Research. Springer, Berlin. pp. 129–156.

    Google Scholar 

  37. Laurance, W.F., D. Carolina Useche, J. Rendeiro, M. Kalka, C.J.A. Bradshaw, et al. 2012. Averting biodiversity collapse in tropical forest protected areas. Nature 489: 290–294.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  38. Ledru, M. 1998. Vegetation dynamics in southern and central Brazil during the last 10,000 yr B.P. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol. 99: 131–142.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Leithead, M. 2010. Vegetation dynamics of north and south america: Gradients, climate change and disturbance across spatiotemporal scales. University of Guelph, 186 pp.

  40. Leithead, M.D., M. Anand and L.C.R. Silva. 2010. Northward migrating trees establish in treefall gaps at the northern limit of the temperate-boreal ecotone, Ontario, Canada. Oecologia 164: 1095–106.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  41. Leithead, M.D., M. Anand, L.S. Duarte and V.D. Pillar. 2012a. Causal effects of latitude, disturbance and dispersal limitation on richness in a recovering temperate, subtropical and tropical forest. J. Veg. Sci. 23: 339–351.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Leithead, M.D., L.C.R. Silva and M. Anand. 2012b. Recruitment patterns in canopy gaps of an old-growth white pine forest in northern Ontario. Plant Ecol. 213: 1699–1714.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Levin, S. 1992. The problem of pattern and scale in ecology. Ecology 73: 1943–1967.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Luo, Y., J. Melillo, S. Niu, C. Beier, J. S. Clark, A. T. Classen, E. Davidson, J.S. Dukes, R.D. Evans, C.B. Field, C.I. Czimczik, M. Keller, B.A. Kimball, L.M. Kueppers, R.J. Norby, S.L. Pelini, E. Pendall, E. Rastetter, J. Six, M. Smith, M.G. Tjoelker and M.S. Torn. 2011. Coordinated approaches to quantify long-term ecosystem dynamics in response to global change. Global Change Biol. 17: 843–854.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Macias-Fauria, M., B. C. Forbes, P. Zetterberg, and T. Kumpula. 2012. Eurasian Arctic greening reveals teleconnections and the potential for structurally novel ecosystems. Nat. Climate Change 2: 1–6.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. McLachlan, J.S., J.S. Clark and P.S. Manos. 2005. Molecular indicators of tree migration capacity under rapid climate change. Ecology 86: 2088–2098.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Morin, X. and I. Chuine. 2006. Niche breadth, competitive strength and range size of tree species: a trade-off based framework to understand species distribution. Ecol. Lett. 9: 185–95.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  48. Morin, X., L. Fahse, M. Scherer-Lorenzen and H. Bugmann. 2011. Tree species richness promotes productivity in temperate forests through strong complementarity between species. Ecol. Lett. 14: 1211–1219.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  49. Natali, S.M., E.A.G. Schuur and R.L. Rubin. 2012. Increased plant productivity in Alaskan tundra as a result of experimental warming of soil and permafrost. J. Ecol. 100: 488–498.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Nock, C.A., P.J. Baker, W. Wanek, A. Leis, M. Grabner, S. Bunyavejchewin and P. Hietz. 2011. Long-term increases in intrinsic water-use efficiency do not lead to increased stem growth in a tropical monsoon forest in western Thailand. Global Change Biol. 17: 1049–1063.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Nordt, L., J. Von Fischer and L. Tieszen. 2007. Late Quaternary temperature record from buried soils of the North American Great Plains. Geology 35: 159–162.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Normile, D. 2009. Round and round: a guide to the carbon cycle. Science 325: 1642–1643.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  53. Ocean, A. 2004. Eight glacial cycles from an Antarctic ice core. Nature 429: 623–628.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  54. Oliveira, J. and V.D. Pillar. 2004. Vegetation dynamics on mosaics of campos and araucaria forest between 1974 and 1999 in southern Brazil. Community Ecol. 5: 197–202.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Orlóci, L. 2008. Vegetation displacement issues and transition statistics in climate warming cycle. Community Ecol. 9: 1–39.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Pan, Y., R.A. Birdsey, J. Fang, R. Houghton, P.E. Kauppi, W.A. Kurz, O.L. Phillips, A. Shvidenko, S.L. Lewis, J.G. Canadell, P. Ciais, R.B. Jackson, S.W. Pacala, A.D. McGuire, S. Piao, A. Rautiainen, S. Sitch and D. Hayes. 2011. A large and persistent carbon sink in the world’s forests. Science 333: 988–993.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  57. Pagnutti, C., C.T. Bauch, and M. Anand. 2013. Outlook on a worldwide forest transition. PLoS ONE 8(10): e75890.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  58. Peńuelas, J., J.M. Hunt, R. Ogaya and A.S. Jump. 2008. Twentieth century changes of tree-ring δ13C at the southern range-edge of Fagus sylvatica: increasing water-use efficiency does not avoid the growth decline induced by warming at low altitudes. Global Change Biol. 14: 1076–1088.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  59. Petit, J.R., D. Raynaud, I. Basile, J. Chappellaz, M. Davisk, C. Ritz, M. Delmotte, M. Legrand, C. Lorius, L. Pe and E. Saltzmank. 1999. Climate and atmospheric history of the past 420,000 years from the Vostok ice core, Antarctica. Nature 399: 429–436.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  60. Ponette-González, A.G., K.C. Weathers and L.M. Curran. 2010a. Water inputs across a tropical montane landscape in Veracruz, Mexico: synergistic effects of land cover, rain and fog seasonality, and interannual precipitation variability. Global Change Biol. 16: 946–963.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  61. Ponette-González, A.G., K.C. Weathers and L.M. Curran. 2010b. Tropical land-cover change alters biogeochemical inputs to ecosystems in a Mexican montane landscape. Ecol. Appl. 20: 1820–1837.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  62. Randerson, J.T., H. Liu, M.G. Flanner, S.D. Chambers, Y. Jin, P.G. Hess, G. Pfister, M.C. Mack, K.K. Treseder, L.R. Welp, F.S. Chapin, J.W. Harden, M.L. Goulden, E. Lyons, J.C. Neff, E.A.G. Schuur and C. S. Zender. 2006. The impact of boreal forest fire on climate warming. Science 314: 1130–1132.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  63. Reich, P., D. Tilman, F. Isbell, K. Mueller, S. Hobbie, D.F.B. Flynn and N. Eisenhauer. 2012. Impacts of biodiversity loss escalate through time as redundancy fades. Science 336: 589–592.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  64. Rohde, R.A. and R.A. Muller. 2005. Cycles in fossil diversity. Nature 434: 208–210.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  65. Rossatto, D.R., Hoffmann, W.A. and Franco, A.C. 2009. Differences in growth patterns between co-occurring forest and savanna trees affect the forest-savanna boundary. Funct. Ecol. 23:689–698

    Article  Google Scholar 

  66. Rossatto, D.R., L.C.R. Silva, R. Villalobos-Vega, L.D.S.L. Sternberg and A. C. Franco. 2012. Depth of water uptake in woody plants relates to groundwater level and vegetation structure along a topographic gradient in a neotropical savanna. Environ. Exp. Bot. 77: 259–266.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  67. Sabine, C.L., M. Heimann, P. Artaxo, D.C.E. Bakker, C.-T.A. Chen, C.B. Field, N. Gruber, C. Le Quéré, R.G. Prinn, J.E. Richey, P.R. Lankao, J.A. Sathaye and R. Valentini. 2004. Current Status and Past Trends of the Global Carbon Cycle. In: C.B. Field and M.R. Raupach (eds.), The Global Carbon Cycle Integrating Humans Climate and the Natural World. Island Press, Washington D.C., pp. 17–44.

    Google Scholar 

  68. Saha, S., T.M. Strazisar, E.S. Menges, P. Ellsworth and L. Sternberg. 2008. Linking the patterns in soil moisture to leaf water potential, stomatal conductance, growth, and mortality of dominant shrubs in the Florida scrub ecosystem. Plant Soil. 313: 113–127.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  69. Salzer, M.W., M.K. Hughes, A.G. Bunn and K. F. Kipfmueller. 2009. Recent unprecedented tree-ring growth in bristlecone pine at the highest elevations and possible causes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106: 20348–20353.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  70. Schimel, D.S., G.P. Asner and P. Moorcroft. 2013. Observing changing ecological diversity in the Anthropocene. Front. Ecol. Environ. 11: 129–137.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  71. Silva, L.C.R., R. Corręa, T.A. Doane, E. Pereira and W.R. Horwath. 2013. Unprecedented carbon accumulation in mined soils: the synergistic effect of resource input and plant species invasion. Ecol. Appl. 23: 1345–1356.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  72. Silva, L.C.R. and M. Anand. 2011. Mechanisms of Araucaria (Atlantic) forest expansion into southern Brazilian grasslands. Ecosystems 14: 1354–1371.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  73. Silva, L.C.R., and M. Anand. 2013. Probing for the influence of atmospheric CO2 and climate change on forest ecosystems across biomes. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 22: 83–92.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  74. Silva, L.C.R., M. Anand and M. D. Leithead. 2010a. Recent widespread tree growth decline despite increasing atmospheric CO2. PLoS ONE 5:7.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  75. Silva, L.C.R., M. Anand, J.M. Oliveira and V.D. Pillar. 2009. Past century changes in Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol.) Kuntze water use efficiency and growth in forest and grassland ecosystems of southern Brazil: implications for forest expansion. Global Change Biol. 15: 2387–2396.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  76. Silva, L.C.R., M.A. Giorgis, M. Anand, L. Enrico, N. Pérez-Harguindeguy, V. Falczuk, L.L. Tieszen and M. Cabido. 2011. Evidence of shift in C4 species range in central Argentina during the late Holocene. Plant Soil. 349: 261–279.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  77. Silva, L.C.R., M. Haridasan and W.A. Hoffmann. 2010b. Not all forests are expanding over central Brazilian savannas. Plant Soil. 333: 431–442.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  78. Silva, L.C.R., L. Sternberg, M. Haridasan, W.A. Hoffmann, F. Miralles-Wilhelm and A.C. Franco. 2008. Expansion of gallery forests into central Brazilian savannas. Global Change Biol. 14: 2108–2118.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  79. Silva, L.C.R., G.D. Vale, R.F. Haidar and L.S. Sternberg. 2010c. Deciphering earth mound origins in central Brazil. Plant Soil. 336: 3–14.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  80. Silva, L.C.R., W.A. Hoffmann, D.R. Rossatto, M. Haridasan, A.C. Franco, W.R. Horwath. In Press. Can savannas become forests? A coupled analysis of nutrient stocks and fire thresholds in central Brazil. Plant Soil. DOI 10.1007/s11104-013-1822-x

  81. Silva, L.C.R. and W.R. Horwath. 2013. Explaining global increases in water use efficiency: Why have we overestimated responses to rising atmospheric CO2 in natural forest ecosystems? PLoS ONE. 8(1): e530.

    Google Scholar 

  82. Snyder, P.K., C. Delire and J.A. Foley. 2004. Evaluating the influence of different vegetation biomes on the global climate. Climate Dynamics 23: 279–302.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  83. Solomon, S., G.-K. Plattner, R. Knutti and P. Friedlingstein. 2009. Irreversible climate change due to carbon dioxide emissions. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106: 1704–1709.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  84. Strikis, N.M., F.W. Cruz, H. Cheng, I. Karmann, R.L. Edwards, M. Vuille, X. Wang, M.S. de Paula, V.F. Novello and A.S. Auler. 2011. Abrupt variations in South American monsoon rainfall during the Holocene based on a speleothem record from central-eastern Brazil. Geology 39: 1075–1078.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  85. Taylor, Z.P., S.P. Horn, C.I. Mora, K.H. Orvis and L.W. Cooper. 2010. A multi-proxy palaeoecological record of late-Holocene forest expansion in lowland Bolivia. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoecol. 293: 98–107.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  86. Tilman, D., P. Reich and F. Isbell. 2012. Biodiversity impacts ecosystem productivity as much as resources, disturbance, or herbivory. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109: 10394–10397.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  87. Umemiya, C., E. Rametsteiner and F. Kraxner. 2010. Quantifying the impacts of the quality of governance on deforestation. Environ. Sci. Pol. 13: 695–701.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  88. Valladares, F., E. Gianoli and J. Gûmez. 2007. Ecological limits to plant phenotypic plasticity. New Phytol. 176: 749–763.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  89. Van Mantgem, P.J., N.L. Stephenson, J.C. Byrne, L.D. Daniels, J.F. Franklin, P.Z. Fulé, M.E. Harmon, A.J. Larson, J.M. Smith, A.H. Taylor and T.T. Veblen. 2009. Widespread increase of tree mortality rates in the western United States. Science 323: 521–524.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  90. Vandermark, D., J.A. Tarduno, D.B. Brinkman, R.D. Cottrell and S. Mason. 2009. New Late Cretaceous macrobaenid turtle with Asian affinities from the High Canadian Arctic: Dispersal via ice-free polar routes. Geology 37: 183–186.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  91. Veizer, J., Y. Godderis and L. M. François. 2000. Evidence for decoupling of atmospheric CO2 and global climate during the Phanerozoic eon. Nature. 408: 698–701.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  92. Vimeux, F., F. Sylvestre and M. Khodri. 2009. Past climate variability in South America and surrounding regions. Springer, Berlin.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  93. Von Fischer, J.C., L.L. Tieszen and D.S. Schimel. 2008. Climate controls on C3 vs. C4 productivity in North American grasslands from carbon isotope composition of soil organic matter. Global Change Biol. 14: 1141–1155.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  94. Wettstein, J.J., J.S. Littell, J.M. Wallace and Z. Gedalof. 2011. Coherent region-, species-, and frequency-dependent local climate signals in Northern Hemisphere tree-ring widths. J. Climate 24: 5998–6012.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  95. Williams, J.W., B.N. Shuman, T. Webb, P.J. Bartlein and P.L. Leduc. 2004. Late-Quaternary vegetation dynamics in North America: Scaling from taxa to biomes. Ecol. Monogr. 74: 309–334.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to L. C. R. Silva.

Electronic supplementary material

Rights and permissions

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Silva, L.C.R., Anand, M. Historical links and new frontiers in the study of forest-atmosphere interactions. COMMUNITY ECOLOGY 14, 208–218 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1556/ComEc.14.2013.2.11

Download citation

Keywords

  • Anthropocene
  • Climate change
  • Forest migration
  • Paleoecology
  • Soil-plant-atmosphere interactions