Cereal Research Communications

, Volume 42, Issue 2, pp 346–358 | Cite as

Performance of Rice Systems, Irrigation and Organic Carbon Storage

  • K. G. MandalEmail author
  • K. Kannan
  • A. K. Thakur
  • D. K. Kundu
  • P. S. Brahmanand
  • A. Kumar


Three-year (2007/2008–2009/2010) field experiment was conducted at the Directorate of Water Management Research Farm under Deras command in Odisha, India to assess the crop yield, irrigation water use efficiency (WUE), sustainable yield index (SYI), land utilization index (LUI) and changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) for dominant rice systems, viz. rice-maize-rice, rice-cowpea-rice, rice-sunflower-rice, rice-tomato-okra and rice-fallow-rice. Results revealed that crop yield, in terms of total system productivity (TSP) increased by 273, 113, 106 and 58% in rice-tomato-okra, rice-sunflower-rice, rice-maize-rice and rice-cowpea-rice, respectively, when compared to rice-fallow-rice. Irrigation WUE was 49–414% greater in rice-based diversified systems than the existing rice-fallow-rice (2.98 kg ha−1 mm−1). The SYI ranged from 0.65 to 0.75 indicating greater sustainability of the systems. Three crops in a sequence resulted in greater LUI and production efficiency compared to rice-fallow-rice. The gross economic return and benefit-cost ratio was in the order: rice-tomato-okra > rice-maize-rice > rice-sunflower-rice > rice-cowpea-rice > rice-fallow-rice. The SOC storage ranged from 40.55 Mg ha−1 in rice-fallow-rice to 46.23 Mg ha−1 in rice-maize-rice system. The other systems had also very close values of SOC storage with the rice-maize-rice system; there was a positive change of SOC (7.20 to 12.52 Mg ha−1) for every system, with highest in rice-maize-rice system and the lowest in rice-fallow-rice. It is concluded that the appropriate rice-based system would be rice-tomato-okra followed by rice-maize-rice, rice-sunflower-rice and rice-cowpea-rice. Rice-fallow-rice is not advisable because of its lower productivity, lower LUI and economic return.


rice yield irrigation WUE soil organic carbon storage 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Supplementary material

42976_2014_4202346_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (105 kb)
Supplementary material, approximately 107 KB.


  1. Alam, A., Kumar, A. 2001. Microirrigation system — Past, present and future. In: Singh, H.P., Kaushish, S.P., Kumar, A., Murthy, T.S., Samuel, J.C. (eds), Microirrigation. Central Board of Irrigation and Power (CBIP), New Delhi, India, pp. 1–17.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, R.I. 2005. Are some crops synergistic to following crops? Agron. J. 97:7–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Balesdent, J., Balabane, M. 1996. Major contribution of roots to soil carbon storage inferred from maize cultivated soils. Soil Biol. Biochem. 28:1261–1263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bandaranayake, W., Qian, Y.L., Parton, W.J., Ojima, D.S., Follet, R.F. 2003. Estimation of soil organic carbon changes in turf grass systems using the century model. Agron. J. 95:558–563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bastia, D.K., Garnayak, L.M., Barik, T. 2008. Diversification of rice (Oryza sativa)-based cropping systems for higher productivity, resource-use efficiency and economics. Indian J. Agron. 53:22–26.Google Scholar
  6. Bauer, A., Black, A.L. 1994. Quantification of the effect of soil organic matter content on soil productivity. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 58:185–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bhattacharyya, T., Pal, D.K., Mandal, C., Velayutham, M. 2000. Organic carbon stock in Indian soils and their geographical distribution. Curr. Sci. 79:655–660.Google Scholar
  8. Bouyoucous, G.J.A. 1951. Recalibration of the hydrometer for making mechanical analysis of soil. Agron. J. 43:434–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chand, R., Chauhan, S. 2002. Socio-economic factors in agricultural diversification in India. Agricultural Situation in India 58:523–529.Google Scholar
  10. Dwivedi, B.S., Shukla, A.K., Singh, V.K., Yadav, R.L. 2001. Results of participatory diagnosis of constraints and opportunities (PDCO) based trials from the state of Uttar Pradesh. In: Subba Rao, A., Srivastava, S. (eds), Development of Farmers’ Resource-Based Integrated Plant Nutrient Supply Systems: Experience of a FAO-ICAR-IFFCO Collaborative Project and AICRP on Soil Test Crop Response Correlation. IISS, Bhopal, India, pp. 50–75.Google Scholar
  11. Fujisaka, S., Harrington, L., Hobbs, P. 1994. Rice-wheat in South Asia: Systems and long-term priorities established through diagnostic research. Agric. Syst. 46:169–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ghosh, P.K., Manna, M.C., Dayal, D., Wanjari, R.H. 2006. Carbon sequestration potential and sustainable yield index for groundnut- and fallow-based cropping systems. J. Agril. Sci. 144:249–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gill, M.S., Ahlawat, I.P.S. 2006. Crop diversification — Its role towards sustainability and profitability. Indian J. Ferti. 2:125–138; 150.Google Scholar
  14. Gol, C. 2009. The effects of land use change on soil properties and organic carbon at Dagdami river catchment in Turkey. J. Environ. Biol. 30:825–830.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Gomez, K.A., Gomez, A.A. 1984. Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research. John Wiley and Sons. New York, USA.Google Scholar
  16. Guo, L.B., Gifford, R.M. 2002. Soil carbon stocks and land use change: A meta analysis. Global Change Biol. 8:345–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Klute, A. 1986. Water retention laboratory methods. In: Klute, A. (ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 1. Physical and Mineralogical Methods (2nd ed.). Am. Soc. Agron., Soil Sci. Soc. Am., Madison, WI, USA. pp. 635–662.Google Scholar
  18. Kumar, K.A., Reddy, N.V., Sadasiva Rao, K. 2005. Profitable and energy efficient rice-based cropping systems in northern Telangana of Andhra Pradesh. Indian J. Agron. 50:6–9.Google Scholar
  19. Lal, R., Kimble, J., Follett, R. 1997. Soil quality management for carbon sequestration. In: Lal, R., Kimble, J., Follett, R. (eds), Soil Properties and their Management for Carbon Sequestration. USDA-NRCS-NSSC, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA, pp. 1–8.Google Scholar
  20. Mahapatra, I.C., Behera, U.K. 2011. Rice (Oryza sativa)-based farming systems for livelihood improvement of Indian farmers. Indian J. Agron. 56:1–19.Google Scholar
  21. Mandal, K.G., Baral, U., Padhi, J., Majhi, P., Chakraborty, H., Kumar, A. 2012. Effects of cropping on soil properties and organic carbon stock in Deras region, India. Reg. Environ. Change 12:899–912.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Milne, E., Heimsath, A. 2008. Soil organic carbon. In: Cleveland, C.J. (ed.), Encyclopedia of Earth. Environmental Information Coalition, National Council for Science and the Environment, Washington, D.C., USA. Source: Scholar
  23. Misra, R.D., Ahmed, M. 1987. Manual on Irrigation Agronomy. Oxford & IBH Pub. Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India, pp. 205–247.Google Scholar
  24. Nelson, D.W., Sommers, L.E. 1996. Total carbon, organic carbon, and organic matter. In: Sparks, D.L. (ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 3: Chemical Methods. Soil Sci. Soc. Am., Madison, WI, USA, pp. 961–1010.Google Scholar
  25. Page, A.L., Miller, R.H., Keeney, D.R. 1982. Method of Soil Analysis. Part 2. Chemical and Microbiological Properties, 2nd ed., Agronomy Monographs. ASA and SSA, Madison, WI, USA.Google Scholar
  26. Panigrahy, R.K., Panigrahy, S., Ray, S.S., Parihar, J.S. 2005. Analysis of the cropping pattern and crop rotation of a subsistence agricultural region using high temporal remote sensing data. 8 th Annual International Conference and Exhibition-Map India 2005 & Geomatics 2005, Feb 7–9, 2005, New Delhi, India, pp. 1–10.Google Scholar
  27. Patil, E.N., Jowale, S., Mahayan, M.S. 1995. Production potential, economics and fertility status of soil as influenced by wheat-based cropping system. Indian J. Agron. 40:544–548.Google Scholar
  28. Powlson, D.S. 2005. Will soil amplify climate change? Nature 433:204–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Raul, S.K., Panda, S.N., Hollaender, H., Billib, M. 2008. Sustainability of rice-dominated cropping system in the Hirakud canal command, Odisha, India. Irrig. Drain. 57:93–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Reddy, B.N., Suresh, G. 2009. Crop diversification with oilseed crops for maximizing productivity, profitability and resource conservation. Indian J. Agron. 54:206–214.Google Scholar
  31. Satyasai, K.J.S., Viswanathan, K.U. 1996. Diversification of Indian agriculture and food security. Indian J. Agric. Econ. 51:674–679.Google Scholar
  32. Shibu, M.E., Van Keulen, H., Leffelaar, P.A., Aggarwal, P.K. 2010. Soil carbon balance of rice-based cropping systems of the Indo-Gangetic Plains. Geoderma 160:143–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Singandhupe, R.B., Rao, G.G.S.N., Patil, N.G., Brahmanand, P.S. 2003. Fertigation studies and irrigation scheduling in drip irrigation system in tomato crop (Lycopersicon esculentum L.). Eur. J. Agron. 19:327–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Singh, R.P., Das, S.K., Rao, U.M.B., Reddy, M.N. 1990. Towards sustainable dryland agricultural practices. Bulletin, Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Hyderabad, pp. 5–9.Google Scholar
  35. Tomar, S.S., Tiwari, A.S. 1990. Production potential and economics of different cropping sequences. Indian J. Agron. 35:30–35.Google Scholar
  36. Tripathi, R.P. 1992. Physical properties and tillage of rice soils in rice-wheat system. In: Pandey, R.K., Dwivedi, B.S., Sharma, A.K. (eds), Rice-wheat Cropping System. PDCSR, Modipuram, India, pp. 53–67.Google Scholar
  37. Velayutham, M., Mandal, D.K., Mandal, C., Sehgal, J. 1999. Agro-Ecological Subregions of India for Planning and Development. National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning (ICAR), Nagpur, India, Publication No. 35, pp. 259–288.Google Scholar
  38. Walkley, A., Black, I.A. 1934. An examination of the method for determining soil organic matter and proposal modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Sci. 37:29–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Wanjari, R.H., Singh, M.V., Ghosh, P.K. 2004. Sustainable yield index: An approach to evaluate the sustainability of long-term intensive cropping systems in India. J. Sustainable Agric. 24:39–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Yadav, R.L. 1998. Factor productivity trends in a rice-wheat cropping system under long-term use of chemical fertilizers. Exp. Agric. 34:1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest 2014

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. G. Mandal
    • 1
    Email author
  • K. Kannan
    • 2
  • A. K. Thakur
    • 1
  • D. K. Kundu
    • 3
  • P. S. Brahmanand
    • 1
  • A. Kumar
    • 1
  1. 1.Directorate of Water ManagementICARBhubaneswarIndia
  2. 2.Regional Research Station, CSWCR&TIICAROotyIndia
  3. 3.Crop Production Division, CRIJAFICARBarrackporeIndia

Personalised recommendations