We characterized a representative set of 42 spring wheat cultivars from Russia and adjacent regions for 3 Vrn loci. The 42 genotypes were screened, along with 3 genotypes of known Vrn genes, using previously published genome-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers designed for detecting the presence or absence of dominant or recessive alleles of the major Vrn loci: Vrn-A1, Vrn-B1 and Vrn-D1. The dominant promoter duplication allele Vrn-A1a was present in 28 of 42 cultivars, whereas the promoter deletion allele Vrn-A1b was present in only 1 of the Russian cultivars (Triticum aestivum L. ‘Pyrothrix 28’). The intron deletion allele Vrn-A1c was not present in any tested cultivar. The dominant Vrn-D1 allele was found in 1 of the cultivars. Thirteen of the spring wheat cultivars tested here carry the recessive vrn-A1 allele. However, for 6 cultivars, there were inconsistencies between PCR data and genetic segregation analysis, showing the presence of the dominant Vrn-A1 gene. No inconsistencies were found in the case of Vrn-B1 locus. A new combination of specific primers allowed amplification of the common Vrn-B1a allele along with the novel Vrn-B1c allele, which was present in 17 of the studied cultivars (40%). Twenty-five cultivars (59%) had dominant alleles of Vrn-A1a and Vrn-B1 in combination. We showed the predominance of the Vrn-B1c allele among cultivars with monogenic control of vernalization in West Siberia and Kazakhstan. In the absence of epistatic effects of Vrn-A1, this allele causes an earlier heading time compared to Vrn-B1a, thereby avoiding early fall frosts. Suggestions are made concerning the origin and distribution of the Vrn-B1c allele among Russian spring wheats.
Cutforth, H.W., Campbell, C.A., Brandt, S.A., Hunter, J. et al. 1990. Development and yield of Canadian western red spring and Canada prairie spring wheats as affected by delayed seeding in the brown and dark brown soil zones of Zaskatchewan. Can. J. Plant Sci. 70: 639–660.
Dorofeev, V.F., Udachin, R.A., Semenova, L.V. et al. 1987. Wheat of World. Agro-industrial Publishing House, St. Petersburg, Russia. (in Russian)
Efremova, T.T., Arbuzova, V.S., Leonova, I.N., Makhmudova, K. 2011. Multiple allelism in the Vrn-B1 locus of common wheat. Cereal Res. Commun. 39:12–21.
Fu, D., Szucs, P., Yan, L., Helguera, M., Skinner, J.S., von Zitzewitz, J. et al. 2005. Large deletions within the first intron in VRN-1 are associated with spring growth habit in barley and wheat. Mol. Gen. Genomics 273:54–65.
Goncharov, N.P. 2002. Comparative Genetics of Wheats and their Relatives. Siberian University Publishing House, Novosibirsk, Russia. (in Russian)
Goncharov, N.P. 2004. Response to vernalization in wheat: Its quantitative or qualitative nature. Cereal Res. Commun. 32:323–330.
Goncharov, N.P., Shitova, I.P. 1999. The inheritance of growth habit in old local varieties and landraces of hexaploid wheat. Russian J. of Genetics 35:386–392.
Il’ina, L.G. 1996. Selection of the Saratov Wheats. Saratov University Publishing House, Saratov, Russia. (in Russian)
Iqbal, M., Navabi, A., Yang, R.C., Salmon, D.F., Spaner, D. 2007a. Molecular characterization of vernalization response genes in Canadian spring wheat. Genome 50:511–516.
Iqbal, M., Navabi, A., Salmon, D.F., Yang, R.C. et al. 2007b. Genetic analysis of flowering and maturity time in high latitude spring wheat. Euphytica 154:207–218.
McIntosh, R.A., Dubcovsky, J., Rogers, W.J., Morris, C., Appels, R., Xia, X.C. 2010. Catalogue of gene symbols for wheat. (supplement) Available from the Komugi and GrainGenes websites.
Milec, Z., Tomkova, L., Sumikova, T., Pankova, K. 2011. A new multiplex PCR test for the determination of Vrn-B1 alleles in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Mol. Breeding DOI: 10.1007/s11032-011-9621–7.
Moiseeva, E.A., Goncharov, N.P. 2007. Genetic control of the spring habit in old local cultivars and landraces of common wheat from Siberia. Genetika 43:469–476. (in Russian)
Morgounov, A., Zykin, V.A., Sereda, G.A., Urazaliev, R.A. 2001. Siberian and North Kazakhstan wheat pool. In: Bonjean, A.P., Angus, W.J. (eds), The World Wheat Book. A History of Wheat Breeding. Lavoisier Publishing, London, Paris, New York, pp. 755–772.
Plaschke, J., Ganal, M.W., Roeder, M.S. 1995. Detection of genetic diversity in closely related bread wheat using microsatellite markers. Theor. Appl. Genet. 91:1001–1007.
Porter, J.R., Gawith, M. 1999. Temperatures and the growth and development of wheat: A review. Eur. J. Agron. 10:23–36.
Pugsley, A.T. 1971. Agenetic analysis of spring-winter habit of growth in wheat. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 22:21–31.
Pugsley, A.T. 1972. Additional genes inhibiting winter habit in wheat. Euphytica 21:547–552.
Santra, D.K., Santra, M., Allan, R.E., Campbell, K.G., Kidwell, K.K. 2009. Genetic and molecular characterization of vernalization genes Vrn-A1, Vrn-B1 and Vrn-D1 in spring wheat germplasm from the Pacific Northwest Region of the USA. Plant Breeding 128:576–584.
Shcherban, A.B., Efremova, T.T., Salina, E.A. 2011. Identification of a new Vrn-B1 allele using two near-isogenic wheat lines with difference in heading time. Mol. Breeding DOI: 10.1007/s11032011-9581-y.
Stelmakh, A.F. 1993. Genetic effects of Vrn genes on heading date and agronomic traits in bread wheat. Euphytica 65:53–60.
Stelmakh, A.F. 1998 Genetic systems regulating flowering response in wheat. Euphytica 100:359–369.
Trevaskis, B., Hemming, M.N., Dennis, E.S., Peacock, W.J. 2007. The molecular basis of vernalization induced flowering in cereals. Trends Plant Sci. 12:352–357.
Yan, L., Fu, D., Li, C., Blechl, A., Tranquilli, G. et al. 2006. The wheat and barley vernalization gene Vrn-3 is an orthologue of FT. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103:19581–19586.
Yan, L., Helguera, M., Kato, K., Fukuyama, S., Sherman, J., Dubcovsky, J. 2004. Allelic variation at the VRN-1 promoter in polyploidy wheat. Theor. Appl. Genet. 109:1677–1686.
Yan, L., Loukojanov, A., Tranquillo, G., Helguera, M., Fahima, T., Dubcovsky, J. 2003. Positional cloning of wheat vernalization gene VRN1. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100:6263–6268.
Yoshida, T., Nishida, H., Zhu, J., Nitcher, R., Distelfeld, A. et al. 2010. Vrn-D4 is a vernalization gene located on the centromeric region of chromosome 5D in hexaploid wheat. Theor. Appl. Genet. 120:543–552.
Zhang, X.K., Xia, X.C., Xiao, Y.G., Dubcovsky, J., He, Z.H. 2008. Allelic variation at the vernalization genes Vrn-A1, Vrn-B1, Vrn-D1 and Vrn-B3 in Chinese common wheat cultivars and their association with growth habit. Crop Sci. 48:458–470.
Electronic supplementary material
About this article
Cite this article
Shcherban, A.B., Emtseva, M.V. & Efremova, T.T. Molecular Genetical Characterization of Vernalization Genes Vrn-A1, Vrn-B1 and Vrn-D1 in Spring Wheat Germplasm from Russia and Adjacent Regions. CEREAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS 40, 351–361 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1556/CRC.40.2012.3.4
- polymerase chain reaction