Water is a distinguished stress factor of soils and ecosystems. The description and analysis of positive or negative soil-water stresses are the preconditions of the efficient control of their mechanisms, reversible and/or irreversible consequences. The most significant soil-water stress is extreme moisture regime: water surplus (flood, water-logging, over-moistening) or water deficiency (drought). Their main reasons are the irregular atmospheric precipitation; limited water infiltration into and storage within the soil; high evaporation, surface runoff and filtration losses. In addition to the direct impacts the consequences are the changes in the mass and energy regime of soils and in their biogeochemical cycles. The possibilities of the control of soil-water stress are: help infiltration, storage and availability of soil water; improve the plants’ water uptake; irrigation and drainage.
Keywordsirregular precipitation water storage capacity extreme moisture regime
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