Cereal Research Communications

, Volume 36, Issue 3, pp 489–499 | Cite as

Effect of Heat-Sterilization and EM (Effective Microorganisms) Application on Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Grown in Organic-Amended Sandy Loam Soil

  • A. JavaidEmail author
  • R. Bajwa
  • T. Anjum
Open Access


Effective microorganisms (EM), a culture of coexisting beneficial microorganisms predominantly consisting of species of photosynthetic and lactic acid bacteria, yeast and actinomycetes, has been developed by Japanese Scientists. In the present study effect of soil sterilization on performance of a commercial EM biofertilizer (EM Bioab), in improving crop growth and yield in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was studied in two types of organic amendments viz. farmyard manure (FYM) and Trifolium alexandrinum L. green manure (GM). Plant vegetative and reproductive growth and grain yield was better in heat-sterilized than in nonsterilized soil. EM application resulted an insignificant increase in root and shoot dry biomass and grain yield in heat sterilized FYM amended soil while in heat sterilized GM amendment it caused a significant reduction in grain yield. In nonsterilized soils EM application suppressed root and shoot growth at vegetative stage and had insignificant effect at maturity. Effect was more pronounced in FYM than in GM amendment. In nonsterilized FYM amended soil grain yield was also declined by 41% due to EM application.


wheat Triticum aestivum EM (effective microorganisms) soil sterilization farmyard manure green manure 


  1. Bajwa, R., Javaid, A., Rabbani, N. 1999. EM and VAM technology in Pakistan. Effect of organic amendments and EM on VA mycorrhiza, nodulation and crop growth in Trifolium alexandrianum L. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 2:590–593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bajwa, R., Javaid, A., Javaid, A. 2002. Effect of soil sterilization, organic amendments and EM application on growth, yield and VA mycorrhizal colonization in maize. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology 14:62–67.Google Scholar
  3. Daly, M.J., Stewart, D.P.C. 1999. Influence of “effective microorganisms” (EM) on vegetative production and carbon mineralization — a preliminary investigation. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 14:15–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Daiss, N., Lobo, M.G., Socorro, A.R., Bruckner, U., Heller, J., Gonzalez, M. 2008. The effect of three organic pre-harvest treatments on Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cycla L.) quality. European Food Research and Technology 226:345–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Endlweber, K., Scheu, S. 2006. Establishing arbuscular mycorrhiza-free soil: A comparison of six methods and their effects on nutrient mobilization. Applied Soil Ecology 34:276–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Higa, T. 1991. Effective microorganisms: A biotechnology for mankind. In: Parr, J.F., Hornick, S.B., Whitman, C.E. (eds), Proceedings of 1st Kyusei Nature Farming. USDA, Washington, D.C. USA, October 17–21, 1989, pp. 8–14.Google Scholar
  7. Higa, T. 2000. What is EM technology? EM World Journal 1:1–6.Google Scholar
  8. Hussain, T, Javaid, T., Parr, J.F., Jilani, G., Haq, M.A. 1999. Rice and wheat production in Pakistan with effective microorganisms. American Journal of Alternative Agriculture 14:30–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hussain, T., Anjum, A.D., Tahir, J. 2002. Technology of beneficial microorganisms. Nature Farming and Environment 3:1–14.Google Scholar
  10. Imai, S., Higa, T. 1994. Kyusei nature farming in Japan. Effect of EM on growth and yield of spinach. In: Proceedings of 2 nd International Conference on Kyusei Nature Farming, Brazil, Oct. 7–11, 1991, pp. 92–96.Google Scholar
  11. Javaid, A. 2006. Foliar application of effective microorganisms on pea as an alternative fertilizer. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 26:257–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Javaid, A., Bajwa, R., Ahmad, Q., Rabbani, N. 1997. Effect of EM application on growth, yield, nodulation and nitrogen nutrition in pea (Pisum sativum L.) in heat sterilized and unsterilized soil. Science International (Lahore) 9:307–309.Google Scholar
  13. Javaid, A., Anjum, T., Bajwa, R. 2002. EM and VAM technology in Pakistan. XII. Growth, nodulation and VA mycorrhizal response of Phaseolus vulgaris to long-term EM application. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology 14:57–61.Google Scholar
  14. Kautz, T., López-Fando, C., Ellmer, F. 2006. Abundance and biodiversity of soil microarthropods as influenced by different types of organic manure in a long-term field experiment in Central Spain. Applied Soil Ecology 33:278–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Khaliq, A., Abbasi, M.K., Hussain, T. 2006. Effect of integrated use of organic and inorganic nutrient sources with effective microorganisms (EM) on seed cotton yield in Pakistan. Bioresource Technology 97:967–972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kinjo, T., Perez, K. de Almeida, E, de Oliveia, J.O. 2000. Plant growth affected by EM Bokashi and chemical fertilizers Nature Farming and Environment 1:33–38.Google Scholar
  17. Linderman, R.G. 1992. Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza and soil microbial interactions. In: Bethlenfalvay, G.J., Linderman, R.G. (eds.), Mycorrhiza in Sustainable Agriculture. ASA Special Publication No. 54. American Society of Agronomy, Inc. USA. 49 pp.Google Scholar
  18. Priyadi, K., Hadi, A., Siagian, T.H., Nisa, C., Azizah, A., Raihani, N., Inubushi, K. 2005. Effect of soil type, application of chicken manure and effective microorganisms on corn yield and microbial properties of acidic wetland soils in Indonesia. Soil Science & Plant Nutrition 51:689–691.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Sangakkara, U.R., Marambe, B., Attanayake, A.M.U., Piyadasa, E.R. 1998. Nutrient use efficiency of selected crops grown with effective microorganisms in organic systems. In: Proceedings of 4 th International Conference on Kysei Nature Farming held in Paris, France, June 19–21, 1995, pp. 111–117.Google Scholar
  20. Serrasolsas, I., Khanna, P.K. 1995. Changes in heated and autoclaved forest soils of S.E. Australia. I. Carbon and nitrogen. Biogeochemistry 29:3–24.Google Scholar
  21. Shaxson, T.F. 2006 Re-thinking the conservation of carbon, water and soil: a different perspective Agronomy for Sustainable Development 26:9–19.Google Scholar
  22. Steel, R.G.D., Torrie, J.H., 1980. Principles and procedures of statistics. A Biometrical Approach. 2 nd edition. McGraw Hill Book Co. Inc. New York, USA, pp. 107–109.Google Scholar
  23. Xu, H.L., Wang, R., Mridha, M.A.U. 2000. Effect of organic fertilizers and a microbial inoculant on leaf photosynthesis and fruit yield and quality of tomato plants. Journal of Crop Production 3:173–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Yan, P.S., Xu, H.L. 2002. Influence of EM Bokashi on nodulation, physiological characters and yield of peanut in nature farming fields. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 19:105–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest 2008

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Mycology and Plant PathologyUniversity of the PunjabLahorePakistan

Personalised recommendations