Eight malting barley cultivars were used to investigate the cultivar and environmental effects on grain protein components and the relationships between protein fractions and β-amylase or β-glucanase activity. The results showed there was a great variation for three protein fraction (albumin, hordein and glutelin) contents over cultivars and locations, and a distinct difference in each protein fraction content between the locations for a given cultivars. Correlation analysis indicated that β-amylase activity was significantly correlated with three protein fraction contents and there was a negative correlation between glutelin content and β-amylase activity, but β-amylase activity positively correlated with albumin or hordein content. Furthermore, there was a significant positive correlation between total protein content and β-glucanase activity, and we found the hordein and glutelin content did not show correlated with β-glucanase activity but the albumin content was a significantly negative correlation with β-glucanase activity.
Arends, A.M., Fox, G.P., Henry, R.J., Marschke, R.J., Symons, M.H. 1995. Genetic and environmental variation in the diastatic power of Australian Barley. J. Cereal Sci. 21:63–70.
Brennan, C.S., Smith, D.B., Harris, N., Shewry, P.R. 1998. The production and characterization of Hor3 null lines of barley provides new information on the relationship of D hordein to malting performance. J. Cereal Sci. 28:291–299.
Delcour, J.A., Verschaeve, S.G. 1987. Malt diastatic activity. Part II. A modified EBC diastatic power assay for the selective estimation of beta-amylase activity, time and temperature dependence of the release of reducing sugars. J. Inst. Brew. 93:296–301.
Duffus, C.M. 1993. Starch synthesis and deposition in developing cereal endosperms. In: Shewry, P.R., Stobart, A.K. (eds), Seed Storage Compounds: Biosynthesis, Interactions and Manipulation. Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK.
Ellis, R.P., Swanston, J.S., Rubio, A., Perez-Vendrell, A.M., Romagosa, I., Molina-Cano, J.L. 1997. The development of β-glucanase and degradation of β-glucan in barley grown in Scotland and Spain. J. Cereal Sci. 26:75–82.
Evans, D.E., Wallace, W., Lance, R.C.M., Eglington J.K., Logue, S.J., Barr, A.R. 1995. The influence of β-amylase isoform pattern on β-amylase activity on barley and malt. In: Proceedings of the 45th Australian cereal chemistry conference, Adelaide, Australia, pp. 357–364.
Georg-Kraemer, J.E., Caierao, E., Minella, E., Barbosa-Neto, J.F., Cavalli, S.S. 2004. The (1-3, 1-4)- β-Glucanases in malting barley: Enzyme survival and genetic and environmental effects. J. Inst. Brew. 110:303–308.
Grant, C.A., Gauer, L.E., Gehl, D.T., Bailey, L.D. 1991. Protein production and nitrogen utilization by barley cultivars in response to nitrogen fertilization under varying moisture conditions. Can. J. Plant Sci. 71:997–1009.
Knuckes, B.E., Chiu, M.C.M. 1999. β-glucanase activity and molecular weight of β-glucans in barley after various treatments. Cereal Chem. 76:92–95.
McCleary, B.V., Shameer, I. 1987. Assay of malt beta-glucanase using Azo-barley glucan: an improved precipitant. J. Inst. Brew. 93:87–90.
McCleary, B.V., Codd, R. 1989. Measurement of β-amylase in cereal flours and commercial enzyme preparation. J. Cereal Sci. 9:17–33.
Molina-Cano, J.L., Polo, J.P., Romera, E., Araus, J.L., Zarco, J., Swanston, J.S. 2001. Relationships between barley hordeins and malting quality in a mutant of cv. Triumph I. genotype by environment interaction of hordein content. J. Cereal Sci. 34:285–294.
Morgan, A.H., Gothard, P.G. 1977. A rapid, simple viscometric technique for indirect estimation of soluble β-glucan content of raw barley. J. Inst. Brew. 83:37–38.
Osborne, T.B. 1924. The Vegetable Proteins. Longmans Green and Co., New York.
Peltonen, J., Rita, H., Aikasalo, R., Home, S. 1994. Hordein and malting quality in northern barleys. Hereditas 120:231–239.
Prentice, N. 1980. Enzymatic analysis of beta-glucans in cereal grains. Cereal Chem. 57:198–202.
Qi, J.C., Zhang, G.P., Zhou, M.X. 2006. Protein and hordein fraction content in barley seeds as affected by nitrogen level and their relations to beta-amylase activity. J. Cereal Sci. 43:102–107.
Qi, J.C., Chen, J.X., Wang, J.M., Wu, F.B., Cao, L.P., Zhang, G.P. 2005. Protein and hordein fraction content in barley seeds as affected by sowing date and their relations to malting quality. J. Zhejiang Univ. Sci. 6B: 1069–1075.
Santos, M.M.M., Riis, P. 1996. Optimized McCleary method for measurement of total β-amylase in barley and its applicability. J. Inst. Brew. 102:271–275.
Shewry, P.R., Franklin, J., Parmar, S., Smith, S.J., Miflin, B.J. 1983. The effects of sulphur starvation on the amino acid and protein compositions of barley grain. J. Cereal Sci. 1:21–31.
Smith, D.B. 1990. Barley seed protein and its effects on malting and brewing quality. Plant Varieties Seeds 3:63–80.
Stuart, I.M., Loi, L., Fincher, G.B. 1988. Varietal and environmental variations in (1-3,1-4)- β-glucan levels and (1-3,1-4)- β-glucanase potential in barley: relationships to malting quality. J. Cereal Sci. 7:61–71.
Wang, J.M., Zhang, G.P., Chen, J.X., Shen, Q.Q., Wu, F.B. 2003a. Cultivar and environmental effects on β-glucanase activity and its function in both barley grain and malt. Agric. Sci. China. 2:394–399
Wang, J.M., Zhang, G.P., Chen, J.X., Wu, F.B. 2003b. Genotypic and environmental variation in barley beta-amylase activity and its relation to protein content. Food Chem. 83:163–165.
Wang, J.M., Zhang, G.P., Chen, J.X., Shen, Q.Q. 2004. The change of β-glucanase activity before and after malting and their relations to malt qualities. Food Chem. 86:223–228.
Yin, C., Zhang, G.P., Wang, J.M. 2002. Variation of β-amylase activity in barley as affected by cultivars and environments and relation to protein content and grain weight. J. Cereal Sci. 36:305–310.
Zhang, G.P., Chen, J.X., Dai, F., Wang, J.M., Wu, F.B. 2006. The effect of cultivar and environment on beta-amylase activity is associated with the change of protein content in barley grains. J. Agron. Crop Sci. 192:43–49.
Zhao, F.J., Fortune, S., Barbosa, V.L., McGrath, S.P., Stobart, R., Bilsborrow, P.E., Booth, E.J., Brown, A., Robson, P. 2006. Conditional QTL mapping of oil content in rapeseed with respect to protein content and traits related to plant development and grain yield. Theor. Appl. Genet. 113:33–38.
About this article
Cite this article
Xue, D.W., Dong, J., Wu, F.B. et al. Genotypic and Environmental Variation in Grain Protein Components and their Relations to Beta-amylase and Beta-glucanase Activity in Malting Barley. CEREAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS 36, 125–134 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1556/CRC.36.2008.1.13
- barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)
- protein content
- protein fraction