Cereal Research Communications

, Volume 33, Issue 4, pp 727–732 | Cite as

Effect of 2,4-D Concentration on the Androgenic Response in Anther Culture of Barley

  • Hanna KruczkowskaEmail author
  • Helena Pawlowska
  • Barbara Skucińska


The aim of the study was to determine the effect of various 2,4-D concentrations on the androgenic response and plant development in anther culture of barley. Anthers were either plated directly on the FHG medium supplemented with 20 mg dm−3 of 2,4-D, or pretreated with 0.7 mol dm−3 mannitol and plated on an induction medium containing various concentrations of 2,4-D: 0.2, 2.0, or 20 mg dm−3. The concentration of 20 mg dm−3 was used for 3 days only; subsequently, anthers were transferred onto the medium containing 0.2 mg dm−3 of 2,4-D. It was shown that osmotic stress cannot be replaced with the high concentration of 2,4-D. The most numerous embryos, embryogenic calli, and plants (including green plants) were obtained with 0.7mol dm−3 mannitol pretreatment and 0.2 mg dm−3 of 2,4-D in the induction medium. The auxin concentration also affected the dynamics of embryogenic structure formation and plant development from embryogenic structures. The concentrations higher than 0.2 mg dm−3 slowed down embryogenic structure formation and plant development, and they increased the proportion of calli as compared to embryos in plant regeneration.

Key words

barley haploid anther culture 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid 


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© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest 2005

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hanna Kruczkowska
    • 1
    Email author
  • Helena Pawlowska
    • 1
  • Barbara Skucińska
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Plant Breeding and Seed ScienceAgricultural University of CracowKrakówPoland

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