Cereal Research Communications

, Volume 43, Issue 3, pp 403–414 | Cite as

Apical Stem Culturing to Enhance Cell Sap Assimilates towards Grain Sucrose and Glutamine Metabolism in Wheat

  • B. Kaur
  • B. AsthirEmail author
  • N. S. Bains


Apical stem culturing offers an alternative approach of manipulating cell sap for wheat grain carbon and nitrogen metabolism in a near in vivo conditions. Employing this technique, role of sucrose and glutamine in transport stream on sucrose metabolism, ammonia assimilation and aminotransferase activities were assessed towards starch and protein accumulation in two wheat genotypes PBW 343 (low yield) and PBW 621 (high yield). At mid-milky stage, detached tillers were cultured in complete liquid medium containing varied concentration of glutamine and sucrose for seven days during year 2012–13 and 2013–14. Increasing glutamine concentration from 17 to 25 mM in the culture medium having 117 mM sucrose enhanced activities of nitrate reductase, glutamate synthase, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) at 4 days after culturing (DAC) in correspondence with an increase in soluble protein content. However, at 7 DAC content of soluble protein decreased whereas starch accumulation increased showing, thereby a compensatory effect on carbon and nitrogen metabolism. Apparently, activities of sucrose synthase, soluble acid and neutral invertase significantly decreased. Increasing sucrose concentration from 117 to 125mMled to an increase in transformation of sugars to starch in grain but protein content decreased. PBW621 showed high protein content due to higher activities of GOT, GPT at 4 DAC which subsequently increased carbon skeleton of proteins towards starch synthesis at 7 DAC. Grain filling processes in terms of soluble sugars/starch were strongly correlated to invertase activities whereas proteins to aminotransferases.


acid invertase carbon/nitrogen metabolism glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase glutamate pyruvate transaminase sucrose synthase 



nitrate reductase


glutamate synthase


glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase


glutamate pyruvate transaminase


sucrose synthase


acid invertase


neutral invertase


days after culturing


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© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest 2015

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiochemistryPunjab Agricultural UniversityLudhianaIndia
  2. 2.Department of Plant Breeding and GeneticsPunjab Agricultural UniversityLudhianaIndia

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