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Cereal Research Communications

, Volume 43, Issue 3, pp 470–480 | Cite as

Differences of Some Chemicals and Physical Properties of Winter Wheat Grain of Mealy and Vitreous Appearance

  • I. Konopka
  • M. TańskaEmail author
  • S. Konopka
Quality and Utilization

Abstract

Many wheat species and cultivars, independent of genetic markers of hardness, can produce grain with a vitreous, mealy or mixed appearance. This study analyzed selected chemical and physical differences between kernels with a vitreous and mealy appearance, hand-picked from grain of four winter wheat cultivars cultivated in Poland. Separated fractions were examined for protein content and composition, friabilin presence, carotenoids and total phenolic compounds content, specific kernel density, hardness, as well as kernel surface color. It was found that the ratio of vitreous kernels in the cultivars ranged from 39.18% to 76.28%. Vitreous kernels were darker, slightly heavier and harder than mealy kernels. Additionally, these kernels were more abundant in proteins (an average increase of 2.13%, with variation among cultivars from 0.71% to 2.89%). This type of kernels was also richer in phenolic compounds (on average by 4.02%) and less abundant in carotenoids (on average by 4.53%). Mealy (softer) kernels fractured to a finer flour.

Keywords

endosperm vitreousness mealiness gluten proteins kernel density hardness 

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© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest 2015

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Chair of Food Plant Chemistry and Processing, Faculty of Food SciencesUniversity of Warmia and Mazury in OlsztynOlsztynPoland
  2. 2.Department of Working Machine and Methodology of Research, Faculty of Technical SciencesUniversity of Warmia and Mazury in OlsztynOlsztynPoland

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