Cereal Research Communications

, Volume 42, Issue 3, pp 439–449 | Cite as

Productivity and Water Use Efficiency of Wheat (Triticum aestivum) under Different Resource Conservation Techniques and Irrigation Regimes

  • U. K. BeheraEmail author
  • A. R. Sharma


In India wheat is conventionally planted on flat-bed and irrigation is applied by flooding, which results in low water-use efficiency. Efficient use of irrigation water is a major researchable issue in most command areas for improving crop productivity. Resource conservation technologies aimed at improving productivity and water-use efficiency such as raised-bed planting have been found useful in wide row crops like maize, cotton, sunflower, sugarcane, etc. However, such information is not available for a relatively narrow row crop like wheat. A field experiment was conducted during 2002–04 at New Delhi on a sandy loam soil to evaluate the performance of wheat crop under resource conservation techniques (RCTs), viz. furrow-irrigated raised-bed (FIRB), broad-bed and furrow (BBF), raised-bed and sunken-bed (RBSB) and conventional flat-bed (FB) in main plots, and 4 irrigation regimes, viz. irrigation only at crown root initiation (CRI); irrigation at 0.9 and 1.2 IW/CPE (irrigation water/cumulative pan evaporation) ratio and irrigations at six critical physiological growth stages in subplots. Wheat performed equally well under all the RCTs with respect to grain yield. The maximum grain yield was recorded under 1.2 IW/CPE ratio, which was at par with 6 irrigations at critical growth stages, but significantly higher than 0.9 IW/CPE and one irrigation at CRI. Bed planting techniques involving FIRB and BBF recorded significantly lower consumptive use (CU) of water than RBSB and FB. There was saving of 18.2 to 19.5% irrigation water by adopting FIRB compared to FB with flood irrigation. Water-use efficiency under FIRB and BBF was 8.3–22.8 and 4.9–24.8% higher respectively over the FB with flooding.


crop establishment land configuration water-use efficiency wheat 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Behera, U.K., Sharma, K.C. 1991. Effect of irrigation and fertilizer on grain yield of wheat in Tarai. Indian J. Agron. 36:251–252.Google Scholar
  2. Behera, U.K., Ruwali, K.N., Verma, P.K., Pandey, H.N. 2002. Productivity and water use efficiency of macroni (Triticum durum) and bread wheat (Tritium aestivum) under varying irrigation levels and schedules in the Vertisols of central India. Indian J. Agron. 47:518–525.Google Scholar
  3. Dhillon, S.S., Prashar, A., Thaman, S. 2004. Studies on bed planted wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under different nitrogen levels and tillage methods. J. Curr. Sci. 5:253–256.Google Scholar
  4. Erc, H.V. 1988. Winter wheat response to nitrogen and irrigation. Agron. J. 80:902–908.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. He, J., Li, H.W., McHugh, A.D., Ma, Z.M., Cao, X.H., Wang, Q.J., Zhang, X.M., Zhang, X.R. 2008. Spring wheat performance and water use efficiency on permanent raised-beds in arid northwest China. Aust. J. of Soil Res. 46:659–666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hobbs, P.R., Gupta, R.K. 2003. Rice-wheat cropping systems in Indo-Gangetic Plains: issues of water productivity in relation to new resource conserving technologies. In: Kijne, J.W., Barker, R., Molden, D. (eds), Water Productivity in Agriculture, Limits and Opportunities for Improvement. CABI, Wallingford, U.K., pp. 239–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hossain, M.I., Sufian, M.A., Hossain, A.B.S., Meysner, C.A., Lauren, J.G., Duxbury, J.M. 2003. Performance of Bed Planting and Nitrogen Fertilizer under Rice-wheat Moong Bean Cropping Systems in Bangaladesh. Wheat Research Centre Internal Review Reports, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Dinajpur, Bangladesh.Google Scholar
  8. Humphreys, E., Kukal, S.S., Kristen, E., Hira, G.S., Singh, B., Yadav, S., Sharma, R.K. 2010. Halting the groundwater decline in north-west India — which crop technologies will be winner? Advances in Agron. 109:155–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Humphreys, E., Meisner, C., Gupta, R., Timsina, J., Beecher, H.G., Lu, T.Y., Singh, Y., Gill, M.A., Masih, I., Guo, Z.J., Thompson, J.A. 2005. Water saving in rice-wheat systems. Plant Prod. Sci. 8:242–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Idnani, L.K., Kumar Ashok, 2013. Performance of wheat (Triticum aestivum) under different irrigation schedules and sowing methods. Indian J. Agric. Sci. 83:37–40.Google Scholar
  11. Jat, M.L., Singh, S., Rai, H.K., Chhokar, R.S., Sharma, S.K., Gupta, R.K. 2005. Furrow irrigated raised bed planting technique for diversification of rice—wheat system of Indo-Gangetic Plains. J. Japan Assoc. for Int. Coop. for Agriculture and Forestry 28:25–42.Google Scholar
  12. Li, H. 1990. Analysis and study of crop sensitivity index and sensitivity coefficient. Irrigation Drain. 9:7–14.Google Scholar
  13. Ram, H., Saini, K.S., Kler, D.S., Timsina, J. 2013. Tillage and planting methods effects on yield, water use efficiency and profitability of soybean-wheat system on a loamy sand soil. Exp. Agric. 49:524–542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. RWC-CIMMYT 2003. Addressing Resource Conservation Issues in Rice—Wheat Systems of South Asia. A resource book. RWC-CIMMYT, New Delhi, India.Google Scholar
  15. Sayre, K.D., Limon, A.O. 2002. Potential for a furrow irrigated, permanent bed planting technology to reduce tillage, augment crop residue retention and impair long-term sustainability for irrigated wheat production systems. In: Proc. Int. Symp. on Conservation Agriculture for Sustainable Wheat production in rotation with Cotton in limited water resource area, Oct. 14–18. Institute of Irrigation and Agricultural Mechanization Engineers, Tashkent, Uzbekistan, pp. 72–79.Google Scholar
  16. Sayre, K.D., Moreno, R.O.H. 1997. Application of raised bed planting system of wheat. Wheat Program Special Report No. 31. CIMMYT, Mexico, pp. 1–31.Google Scholar
  17. Sharma, A.R., Behera, U.K. 2004. Fertilizer use and options for diversification in rice—wheat cropping system in India. Fertilizer News 49:115–131.Google Scholar
  18. Tripathy, S.C., Sayre, K.D., Kaul, J.N., Narang, R.S. 2002. Effect of planting methods and N rates on lodging, morphological characters of culm and yield in spring wheat varieties. Cereal Res. Commun. 30:431–438.Google Scholar
  19. Wang, F.H., Wang, X.Q., Sayre, K. 2004. Comparison of conventional flood irrigated, flat planting with furrow irrigated raised bed planting for winter wheat in China. Field Crops Res. 87:35–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Yadav, A., Malik, R.K., Bansal, N.K., Gupta, R.K., Singh, S., Hobbes, P.R., 2002. Manual for using zero till-seed-cum-fertilizer drill and zero-till drill-cum-bed planter, Rice—Wheat Consortium Technical Bulletin Series 4, New Delhi-110 012, India: Rice-Wheat Consortium for the Indo-Gangetic Plains, 24 pp.Google Scholar
  21. Zhang, H., Wang, X., You, M., Liu, C. 1999. Water yield relations and water-use efficiency of winter wheat in the North-China Plain. Irrigation Sci. 19:37–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest 2013

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of AgronomyIndian Agricultural Research InstituteNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations