Exaggerated Activity of HPA Axis in Obese Rats Fed Normocaloric Liquid Nutrition

Abstract

Experimental and clinical studies have shown alterations in activity of systems responsible for neuroendocrine stress response in obese individuals. Therefore we investigated the effect of palatable normocaloric liquid nutrition (Fresubin) on alterations in activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in male Wistar rats of different developmental stages. Control rats (CON) received standard pellet chow all the time from weaning (21st day of age) to 150 days. Fresubin was administered throughout the experiment (LN), only in juvenility (from 21st to 90th day of age; LNJ) or only in adulthood (from 90th to 150th day of age; LNA). Body weight and energy intake were periodically monitored. Adrenal gland and fat tissue weight and plasma corticosterone levels (CORT) was determined after sacrification. Fresubin intake induced obesity in LN and LNA rats. In LN and LNA rats were observed elevated serum CORT levels, but only in LN rats with significant twofold increase compared to LNJ rats. However, the weight of adrenal glands did not differ between LN, LNJ and LNA experimental groups. Based on our results, we suggest, that obesity induced by Fresubin in LN and LNA rats is accompanied by increased HPA activity represented by elevated plasma CORT levels in these rats.

References

  1. 1.

    Arner, P. (2005) Effects of testosterone on fat cell lipolysis. Species differences and possible role in polycystic ovarian syndrome. Biochemie 87, 39–43.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Benthem, L., Keizer, K., Wiegman, C. H., de Boer, S. F., Strubbe, J. H., Steffens, A. B., Kuipers, F., Scheurink, A. J. (2000) Excess portal venous long-chain fatty acids induce syndrome X via HPA axis and sympathetic activation. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 279, E1286–1293.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Boukouvalas, G., Gerozissis, K., Kitraki, E. (2010) Fat feeding of rats during pubertal growth leads to neuroendocrine alterations in adulthood. Cell. Mol. Neurobiol. 30, 91–99.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Bursac, B. N., Djordjevic, A. D., Vasiljevic, A. D., Milutinovic, D. D., Velickovic, N. A., Nestorovic, N. M., Matic, G. M. (2013) Fructose consumption enhances glucocorticoid action in rat visceral adipose tissue. J. Nutr. Biochem. 24, 1166–1172.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Dallman, M. F. (2010) Stress-induced obesity and the emotional nervous system. Trends Endocrinol. Metab. 21, 159–165.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Dallman, M. F., la Fleur, S. E., Pecoraro, N. C., Gomez, F., Houshyar, H., Akana, S. F. (2004) Minireview: glucocorticoids-food intake, abdominal obesity, and wealthy nations in 2004. Endocrinology 145, 2633–2638.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Davis, D. D., Ruiz, A. L., Yanes, L. L., Iliescu, R., Yuan, K., Moulana, M., Racusen, L. C., Reckelhoff, J. F. (2012) Testosterone supplementation in male obese Zucker rats reduces body weight and improves insulin sensitivity but increases blood pressure. Hypertension 59, 726–731.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Ghalami, J., Zardooz, H., Rostamkhani, F., Farrokhi, B., Hedayati, M. (2013) Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion: effects of high-fat diet and acute stress. J. Endocrinol. Invest. 36, 835–842.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Chrousos, G. P. (2000) The HPA axis and the stress response. Endocr. Res. 26, 513–514.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Jones, T. H. (2010) Effects of testosterone on Type 2 diabetes and components of the metabolic syndrome. J. Diabetes 2, 146–156.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    la Fleur, S. E. (2006) The effects of glucocorticoids on feeding behavior in rats. Physiol. Behav. 89, 110–114.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Legendre, A., Harris, R. B. (2006) Exaggerated response to mild stress in rats fed high-fat diet. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 291, R1288–1294.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Lenglos, C., Mitra, A., Guevremont, G., Timofeeva, E. (2013) Sex differences in the effects of chronic stress and food restriction on body weight gain and brain expression of CRF and relaxin-3 in rats. Genes Brain Behav. 12, 370–387.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Levin, B. E., Richard, D., Michel, C., Servatius, R. (2000) Differential stress responsivity in dietinduced obese and resistant rats. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 279, R1357–1364.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Livingstone, D. E., Jones, G. C., Smith, K., Jamieson, P. M., Andrew, R., Kenyon, C. J., Walker, B. R. (2000) Understanding the role of glucocorticoids in obesity: tissue-specific alterations of corticosterone metabolism in obese Zucker rats. Endocrinology 141, 560–563.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Masuzaki, H., Paterson, J., Shinyama, H., Morton, N. M., Mullins, J. J., Seckl, J. R., Flier, J. S. (2001) A transgenic model of visceral obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Science 294, 2166–2170.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Michaelis, O. E. T., Carswell, N., Velasquez, M. T., Kimmel, P. L., Abraham, A. A., Canary, J. J., Hansen, C. T. (1990) Influence of genetic obesity, dietary carbohydrate and age on parameters of glucose tolerance and kidney and adrenal gland histology in female SHR/N-corpulent rats. Int. J. Obes. 14, 973–985.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Mikuska, L., Vrabcova, M., Lackovicova, L., Ukropec, J., Hegedusova, N., Slavkovsky, P., Hubka, P., Mravec, B. (2013) Long-term liquid nutrition intake and development of obesity: differences between young and adult rats. Endocr. Regul. 47, 85–92.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Pecoraro, N., Reyes, F., Gomez, F., Bhargava, A., Dallman, M. F. (2004) Chronic stress promotes palatable feeding, which reduces signs of stress: feedforward and feedback effects of chronic stress. Endocrinology 145, 3754–3762.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Pratchayasakul, W., Kerdphoo, S., Petsophonsakul, P., Pongchaidecha, A., Chattipakorn, N., Chattipakorn, S. C. (2011) Effects of high-fat diet on insulin receptor function in rat hippocampus and the level of neuronal corticosterone. Life Sci. 88, 619–627.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Shin, A. C., MohanKumar, S. M., Sirivelu, M. P., Claycombe, K. J., Haywood, J. R., Fink, G. D., MohanKumar, P. S. (2010) Chronic exposure to a high-fat diet affects stress axis function differentially in diet-induced obese and diet-resistant rats. Int. J. Obes. (Lond) 34, 1218–1226.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Tannenbaum, B. M., Brindley, D. N., Tannenbaum, G. S., Dallman, M. F., McArthur, M. D., Meaney, M. J. (1997) High-fat feeding alters both basal and stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity in the rat. Am. J. Physiol. 273, E1168–1177.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Ulrich-Lai, Y. M., Figueiredo, H. F., Ostrander, M. M., Choi, D. C., Engeland, W. C., Herman, J. P. (2006) Chronic stress induces adrenal hyperplasia and hypertrophy in a subregion-specific manner. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 291, E965–973.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Umeoka, E. H., Garcia, S. B., Antunes-Rodrigues, J., Elias, L. L., Garcia-Cairasco, N. (2011) Functional characterization of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis of the Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR) strain. Brain Res. 1381, 141–147.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Walker, C. D., Salzmann, C., Long, H., Otis, M., Roberge, C., Gallo-Payet, N. (2004) Direct inhibitory effects of leptin on the neonatal adrenal and potential consequences for brain glucocorticoid feedback. Endocr. Res. 30, 837–844.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Widmaier, E. P., Rosen, K., Abbott, B. (1992) Free fatty acids activate the hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenocortical axis in rats. Endocrinology 131, 2313–2318.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to B. Mravec.

Rights and permissions

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Vrabcova, M., Mikuska, L., Zeman, M. et al. Exaggerated Activity of HPA Axis in Obese Rats Fed Normocaloric Liquid Nutrition. BIOLOGIA FUTURA 65, 285–293 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1556/ABiol.65.2014.3.5

Download citation

Keywords

  • Corticosterone
  • Fresubin
  • liquid nutrition
  • obesity
  • rats