Growth Regulator Requirement for In Vitro Embryogenic Cultures of Snowdrop (Galanthus Nivalis L.) Suitable for Germplasm Preservation


In this study, we report on the production of bulb scale-derived tissue cultures capable of efficient shoot and plant regeneration in three genotypes of snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis L., Amaryllidaceae), a protected ornamental plant. For culture line A, high auxin and low cytokinin concentration is required for callus production and plant regeneration. The type of auxin is of key importance: α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NA) in combination with indole-3-acetic acid (IA) at concentrations of 2 mg L–1 or 2–10 mg L–1 NA with 1 mg L–1 N6-benzyladenine (BA), a cytokinin on full-strength media are required for regeneration. Cultures showing regeneration were embryogenic. When lines B and C were induced and maintained with 2 mg L–1 NA and 1 mg L–1 BA, they produced mature bulblets with shoots, without roots. Line A produced immature bulblets with shoots under the above culture condition. Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) analysis showed that (i) genetic differences between line A and its bulb explants were not significant, therefore these tissue cultures are suitable for germplasm preservation, and (ii) different morphogenetic responses of lines A, B and C originated from genetic differences. Culture line A is suitable for field-growing, cultivation and germplasm preservation of G. nivalis and for the production of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids.



ascorbic acid


Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism




casein hydrolysate


indole-3-acetic acid


indole-3-butyric acid

MS medium:

Murashige-Skoog medium


α-naphthaleneacetic acid


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Correspondence to C. Máthé.

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Resetár, A., Demeter, Z., Ficsor, E. et al. Growth Regulator Requirement for In Vitro Embryogenic Cultures of Snowdrop (Galanthus Nivalis L.) Suitable for Germplasm Preservation. BIOLOGIA FUTURA 65, 165–177 (2014).

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  • Galanthus nivalis
  • bulb callus
  • somatic embryogenesis
  • plant regeneration
  • germplasm preservation