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Acta Biologica Hungarica

, Volume 62, Issue 2, pp 156–170 | Cite as

Determination of Stress Responses Induced by Aluminum in Maize (Zea Mays)

  • Filiz VardarEmail author
  • Iıil İsmailoĝlu
  • Deniz İnan
  • Meral Ünal
Article

Abstract

To assess the alternative responses to aluminum toxicity, maize (Zea mays L. cv Karadeniz yildizi) roots were exposed to different concentrations of AlCl3 (150, 300 and 450 μM). Aluminum reduced the root elongation by 39.6% in 150 μM, 44.1% in 300 μM, 50.1% in 450 μM AlCl3 after 96 h period. To correlate the root elongation with the alternative stress responses including aluminum accumulation, lipid peroxidation, mitotic abnormalities, reduction of starch content, intracellular Ca2+ accumulation, callose formation, lignin deposition and peroxidase activity, cytochemical and biochemical tests were performed. The results indicated that aluminum accumulation and lipid peroxidation were observed more densely on the root cap and the outer cortex cells. In addition to morphological deformations, cytochemical analysis displayed cellular deformations. Furthermore, mitotic abnormalities were observed such as c-mitosis, micronuclei, bi- and trinucleated cells in aluminum treated root tips. Aluminum treatment induced starch reduction, callose formation, lignin accumulation and intracellular Ca2+ increase. Moreover, the peroxidase activity increased significantly by 3, 4.4 and 7.7 times higher than in that of control after 96 h, respectively. In conclusion, aluminum is significantly stressful in maize culminating in morphological and cellular alterations.

Keywords

Aluminum toxicity root growth callose intracellular Ca2+ peroxidase activity 

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© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest 2011

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  • Filiz Vardar
    • 1
    Email author
  • Iıil İsmailoĝlu
    • 1
  • Deniz İnan
    • 2
  • Meral Ünal
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biology, Science and Art FacultyMarmara UniversityİstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Statistic, Science and Art FacultyMarmara UniversityİstanbulTurkey

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