Effects of xylopia Aethiopica (Annonaceae) Fruit Methanol Extract on γ-Radiation-Induced Oxidative Stress in Brain of Adult Male Wistar Rats

Abstract

Xylopia aethiopica (XA) (Annonaceae) possesses great nutritional and medicinal values. This study was designed to investigate the effects of XA fruit methanol extract on oxidative stress in brain of rats exposed to whole body γ-radiation (5 Gy). Vitamin C (VC) served as standard antioxidant. Forty-four rats were divided into 4 groups of 11 rats each. One group served as control, two different groups were treated with XA and VC (250 mg/kg), 6 weeks before and 8 weeks after irradiation, and fourth group was only irradiated. Rats were sacrificed 1 and 8 weeks after irradiation. The antioxidant status, viz. Lipid peroxidation (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-s-transferase (GST) and glutathione (GSH) were estimated. Results indicate a significant increase (p < 0.05) in levels of brain LPO after irradiation. LPO increased by 90% and 151%, after 1 and 8 weeks of irradiation, respectively. Irradiation caused significant (p < 0.05) decreases in levels of GSH and GST by 61% and 43% after 1 week and, 75% and 73%, respectively, after 8 weeks of exposure. CAT and SOD levels were decreased by 62% and 68%, respectively, after 8 weeks of irradiation. Treatment with XA and VC ameliorated the radiation-induced decreases in antioxidant status of the animals. These suggest that XA could have beneficial effect by inhibiting oxidative damage in brain of exposed rats.

References

  1. 1.

    Adaramoye, O., Ogungbenro, B., Anyaegbu, O., Fafunso, M. (2008) Protective effects of extracts of Vernonia amygdalina, Hibiscus sabdariffa and vitamin C against radiation-induced liver damage in rats. J. Radiat. Res. 49, 123–131.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Aebi, H. (1974) Methods of Enzymatic Analysis. In: Bergmeyer, H. V. (ed.) Catalase estimation. Verlag Chemic, New York, pp. 673–684.

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Anuradha, C. V., Selvam, R. (1993) Effect of oral methionine on tissue lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. J. Nutr. Biochem. 4, 212–217.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Baynes, J. W., Thrope S. R. (1999) Oxidative stress in diabetic complications. Diabetes 48, 1–9.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Bolzan, A. D., Bianchi M. S. (2002) Genotoxicity of STZ. Mutat. Res. 512, 121–134.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Breen, A. P., Murphy J. A. (1995) Reactions of oxyl radicals with DNA. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 18, 1033–1077.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Buege, J. A., Aust S. D. (1978) Microsomal lipid peroxidation. Methods Enzymol. 30, 302–310.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Carney, J. M., Strake-Reed, P. E., Oliver, C. N., Landum, R. W., Chang, M. S., Wu, J. F., Floyd R. A. (1991) Reversal of age-related increase in brain protein oxidation, decrease in enzyme activity and loss in temporal and spatial memory by chronic administration of the spin trapping compound N-tert-buty-alfa-pheynitrone. PNAS 88, 3633–3636.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Cerutti, P. A. (1991) Oxidant stress and carcinogenesis. Eur. J. Clin. Invest. 21, 1–5.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Choi, J. H., Yu B. P. (1995) Brain synaptosomal aging: Free radicals and membrane fluidity. Free Radic. Biol. Med 18, 133–139.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Dest, V. M. (2006) Radioprotectants: adding quality of life to survivorship. Semin. Oncol. Nurs. 22, 249–256.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Diderot, N. T., Silvere, N., Yasin, A., Zareen, S., Fabien, Z., Etienne, T., Choudhary, M. I., Atta-Ur, R. (2005) Prolyl endopeptidase and thrombin inhibitory diterpenoids from the bark of Xylopia aethi-opica. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 69, 1763–1766.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Esterbauer, H. (1996) Estimation of peroxidative damage: A critical review. Pathologie Biologie Paris 44, 25–28.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Finkel, T., Holbrook N. J. (2000) Oxidants, oxidative stress and the biology of ageing. Nature 408, 239–247.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Habig, W. H., Pabst, M. J., Jakoby W. B. (1974) Glutathione-S-transferases. The first enzymatic step in mercapturic acid formation. J. Biol. Chem. 249, 7130–7139.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    HariKumar, K. B., Kuttan, R. (2004) Protective effect of an extract of Phyllanthus amarus against radiation-induced damage in mice. J. Radiat. Res. 45, 133–139.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Hosseinimehr, S. J. (2007) Foundation review: trends in the development of radioprotective agents. Drug Discov. Today 12, 794–805.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Jagetia, G. C., Venkatesh, P., Baliga M. S. (2004) Fruit extract of Aegle marmelos protects mice against radiation-induced lethality. Integr. Cancer Ther 3, 323–332.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Kada, T., Kaneko, K., Matsuzaki, S., Matsuzaki, T., Hara, Y. (1985) Detection and chemical identification of natural bio-antimutagens. A case of the green tea factor. Mutat. Res. 150, 127–132.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Krishna, A., Kumar, A. (2005) Evaluation of radioprotective effects of Rajgira (Amaranthus paniculatus) extract in Swiss albino mice. J. Radiat. Res. 46, 233–239.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Lowry, O. H., Rosenbrough, N J., Farr, A. L., Randall R. J. (1951) Protein measurement with Folin phenol reagent. J. Biol. Chem. 193, 265–275.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Lubec, B., Hayn, M., Denk W., Bauer, G. (1996) Brain lipid peroxidation and hydroxyl radical attack following the intravenous infusion of hydrogen peroxide in an infant. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 21, 219–223.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Manikandan, S., Srikumar, R., Parthasarathy, N. J., Devi R. S. (2005) Protective effect of Acorus calamus LINN on free radical scavengers and lipid peroxidation in discrete regions of brain against noise stress exposed rat. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 28, 2327–2330.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Matcovis, B., Varga, S. L., Szaluo, L., Witsas, H. (1982) The effect of diabetes on the activities of the peroxide metabolic enzymes. Hor. Metab. Res. 14, 77–79.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    McCord, J. M., Fridovich, I. (1969) Superoxide dismutase, an enzymatic function for erythrocuperin. J. Biol. Chem. 244, 6049–6055.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Moron, M. A., Depierre, J. W., Mannervick, B. (1979) Levels of glutathione, glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase activities in rat lung and liver. Bioch. Biophy. Acta 582, 67–78.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Ngouela, S., Nyassé, B., Tsamo, E., Brochier, M. C., Morin, C. (1998) A trachylobane diterpenoid from Xylopia aethiopica. J. Nat. Prod. 61, 264–266.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    O’Neill, P., Fieden E. M. (1993) DNA: Advances in Radiation Biology. Academic Press, New York pp. 53–120.

    Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Packer, L. S., Ong A. S. H. (1998) Molecular Mechanisms and Health Effects. AOCS Press, Champaign, IL, pp. 307.

    Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Packer, L., Tritschler, H. J., Wessel, K. (1997) Neuroprotection by the metabolic antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 22, 359–378.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Slyshenkov, V. S., Moiseenok, A. G., Wojtczak, L. (1996) Noxious effects of oxygen reactive species on energy-coupling processes in Ehrlich ascites tumor mitochondria and the protection by pantothenic acid. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 20, 793–800.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    UNSCEAR (1986) United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, Genetic and Somatic Effects of Ionizing Radiation, 1986 report to the General Assembly, with annexes. New York, United Nations.

    Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Van Campon, L. E., Murphy, W. J., Franks, J. R., Maethias, P. I., Toraaason M. A. (2002) Oxidative DNA damage is associated with intensive noise exposure in the rat. Hear. Res. 164, 29–38.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Yu, B. P. (1994) Cellular defense against damage from reactive oxygen species. Physiol. Rev. 74, 139–162.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to O. A. Adaramoye.

Rights and permissions

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Adaramoye, O.A., Popoola, B.O. & Farombi, E.O. Effects of xylopia Aethiopica (Annonaceae) Fruit Methanol Extract on γ-Radiation-Induced Oxidative Stress in Brain of Adult Male Wistar Rats. BIOLOGIA FUTURA 61, 250–261 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1556/ABiol.61.2010.3.2

Download citation

Keywords

  • Antioxidant enzymes
  • brain
  • oxidative stress
  • radioprotection
  • vitamin C