Somatic Embryogenesis in Apomict Boechera holboellii

Abstract

In this study we establish an efficient method for the regeneration for Boechera holboellii via somatic embryogenesis. Immature cotyledons from siliques of 4–6 month-old plants were cultured on MS medium supplemented with plant growth regulators (BA — 6-benzylaminopurine; NAA — α-naphthaleneacetic acid; TDZ — 1-phelyl-3-(1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-yl) urea: 2,4 D-2,4-dichlorophenoxy-acetic acid). A high frequency of embryogenic callus was produced after two weeks in culture. The somatic embryos were obtained with a frequency of 10% of explants on MS medium supplemented with 1.34 μM NAA + 8.87 μM BA and 2.68 μM NAA + 17.74 μM BA within 3 weeks in culture. The alternative regime of MS medium supplemented with 1.34 μM NAA + 4.44 μM BA produced somatic embryos at a frequency of 38%.

References

  1. 1.

    Bicknell, R. A., Koltunow, A. M. (2004) Understanding apomixis: Recent advances and remaining conundrums. Plant Cell. 16, S228–S245.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Böcher, T. (1951) Cytological and embryological studies in the amphi-apomictic Arabis holboellii complex. Biologiske Skrifter. VI, 1–58.

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Carman, J. G. (1997) Asynchronous expression of duplicate genes in angiosperms may cause apomixis, bispory, tetraspory, and polyembryony. Biol. J. Linnean Soc. 61, 51–94.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Clough, S. J., Bent, A. F. (1998) Floral dip: a simplified method for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant J. 16, 735–743.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Compton, M. E., Gray, D. J. (1993) Somatic embryogenesis and plant-regeneration from immature cotyledons of watermelon. Plant Cell Rep. 12, 61–65.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Gaj, M. D. (2001) Direct somatic embryogenesis as a rapid and efficient system for in vitro regeneration of Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell Tiss. Org. 64, 39–46.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Koltunow, A. M. (1993) Apomixis–embryo sacs and embryos formed without meiosis or fertilization in ovules. Plant Cell 5, 1425–1437.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Koltunow, A. M., Bicknell, R. A., Chaudhury, A. M. (1995) Apomixis–molecular strategies for the generation of genetically identical seeds without fertilization. Plant Physiol. 108, 1345–1352.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Koltunow, A. M., Grossniklaus U. (2003) Apomixis: A developmental perspective. Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 54, 547–574.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Luo, Y. K., Koop, H. U. (1997) Somatic embryogenesis in cultured immature zygotic embryos and leaf protoplasts of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes. Planta 202, 387–396.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Mohan, M. L., Krishnamurthy, K. V. (2002) Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in pigeonpea. Biol. Plantarum 45, 19–25.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Murashige, T., Skoog, A. (1962) A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tabacco tissues culture. Plant Physiol. 15, 473–497.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Naumova, T. N., Van der Laak, J., Osadtchiy, J., Matzk, F., Kravtchenko, A., Bergervoet, J., Ramulu, K. S., Boutilier, K. (2001) Reproductive development in apomictic populations of Arabis holboellii (Brassicaceae). Sexual Plant Reprod. 14, 195–200.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Ozcan, S. (2002) Effect of different genotypes and auxins on efficient somatic embryogenesis from immature zygotic embryo explants of maize. Biotechnol. Biotech. Eq. 16, 51–57.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Ozias-Akins, P. (2006) Apomixis: Developmental characteristics and genetics. Critical Rev. Plant Sci. 25, 199–214.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Roy, B. A., Rieseberg, L. H. (1989) Evidence for Apomixis in Arabis. J. Hered. 80, 506–508.

    Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Schranz, M. E., Dobes, C., Koch, M. A., Mitchell-Olds, T. (2005) Sexual reproduction, hybridization, apomixis, and polyploidization in the genus Boechera (Brassicaceae). Am. J. Bot. 92, 1797–1810.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Schranz, M. E., Kantama, L., de Jong, H., Mitchell-Olds, T. (2006) Asexual reproduction in a close relative of Arabidopsis: a genetic investigation of apomixis in Boechera (Brassicaceae). New Phytologist 171, 425–438.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Spielman, M., Vinkenoog, R., Scott, R. J. (2003) Genetic mechanisms of apomixis. Phil. Trans. Royal Soc. Lond. B 358, 1095–1103.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Taskin, K. M. et al. (2003) Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Arabis gunnisoniana. Plant Cell Tiss. Org. 72, 173–179.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Taskin, K. M., Turgut, K., Scott, R. J. (2004) Apomictic development in Arabis gunnisoniana. Israel J. Plant Sci. 52, 155–160.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Turgut, K., Barghchi, M., Scott, J. R. (1998) Efficient shoot regeneration and somatic embryogenesis from immature cotyledons of Brassica napus L. Plant Breeding 117, 503–504.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Vikrant, Rashid, A. (2001) Comparative study of somatic embryogenesis from immature and mature embryos and organogenesis from leaf-base of Triticale. Plant Cell Tiss. Org. 64, 33–38.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Wu, Y., Haberland, G., Zhou, C., Koop, H. U. (1992) Somatic embryogenesis, formation of morphogenetic callus and normal development in zygotic embryos of Arabidopsis thaliana in vitro. Protoplasma 169, 89–96.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors thank The Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK), Akdeniz University (Antalya-TURKEY), and The British Council for the financial support.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to K. M. Taskin.

Rights and permissions

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Taskin, K.M., Turgut, K. & Scott, R.J. Somatic Embryogenesis in Apomict Boechera holboellii. BIOLOGIA FUTURA 60, 301–307 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1556/ABiol.60.2009.3.7

Download citation

Keywords

  • Boechera
  • Brassicaceae
  • apomixis
  • somatic embryogenesis
  • tissue culture