Acta Biologica Hungarica

, Volume 59, Supplement 2, pp 111–116 | Cite as

FMRFamide-Like Immunoreactivity in the Central Nervous System of the Cephalopod Mollusc, Idiosepius notoides

  • T. WollesenEmail author
  • R. Loesel
  • A. Wanninger


For more than a century, cephalopod molluscs have been the subject of extensive studies with respect to their complex neuroanatomy and behavior. In comparison to gastropod molluscs surprisingly little work has been carried out on the characterization of neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) of cephalopods with respect to their neurotransmitter phenotypes. This study presents preliminary results on the distribution of FMRFamide-like immunoreactive neurons within the CNS of the pygmy squid Idiosepius notoides. Its gross neuroanatomy resembles that of other cephalopods. FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity was observed in most of the brain lobes. High abundance of FMRFamidergic perikarya was found in the dorsal basal, the central palliovisceral, and the olfactory lobes, whereas none were observed in the middle suboesophageal mass. Single individual perikarya are located within the optic lobes and the vertical lobes. Although certain immunohistochemical traits are shared with other cephalopods, such as a wall-like arrangement of FMRFamide-like immunoreactive cell somata within the dorsal basal lobe, others have so far only been found in Idiosepius. However, future investigations on other species are necessary in order to broaden our knowledge on a common recruitment of certain neurotransmitters in distinct brain lobes of the highly advanced brain of cephalopods.


Confocal laser scanning microscopy immunohistochemistry Loligo lophotrochozoa Sepia 


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© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest 2008

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research Group of Comparative Zoology, Department of BiologyUniversity of CopenhagenCopenhagenDenmark
  2. 2.Unit of Developmental Biology and Morphology of AnimalsRWTH AachenAachenGermany

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