Acta Biologica Hungarica

, Volume 59, Supplement 2, pp 81–92 | Cite as

Immunohistological Studies on the Distribution of Learning-Related Peptides in the Central Nervous System of Conditioned Lymnaea

  • Y. Nomura
  • D. Hatakeyama
  • T. Horikoshi
  • M. SakakibaraEmail author


Behavioral conditioning in Lymnaea increased the amount of immunolabeling in the central nervous system for the memory-associated protein calexcitin. The staining level of anti-calexcitin positive neurons was always stronger in conditioned animals than in naïve animals. In the visuo-vestibular conditioned animals, right-parietal and visceral group neurons as well as withdrawal-related neurons were positively stained with anti-calexcitin antibody. In taste-aversion conditioned animals, right-parietal visceral G-group neurons and withdrawal-related neurons were selectively stained. These neurons are candidate neurons for modulation by these conditioning paradigms.


Calexcitin visuo-vestibular conditioning taste-aversion conditioning immunohistochemistry whole-body withdrawal response 


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© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest 2008

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  • Y. Nomura
    • 1
  • D. Hatakeyama
    • 2
  • T. Horikoshi
    • 3
  • M. Sakakibara
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Course of Biological Science and Technology, Graduate School of High-Technology for Human WelfareTokai UniversityShizuokaJapan
  2. 2.Dept.8.3-Biosciences, Zoology/Physiology, Natural Sciences and Technology IIISaarland UniversitySaarbrückenGermany
  3. 3.Department of Biological Science and Technology, School of High-Technology for Human WelfareTokai UniversityShizuokaJapan

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