Recovery of Learning Ability after the Ablation of the Procerebrum in the Terrestrial Slug, Limax valentianus


The procerebrum (PC) is indispensable for odor-aversion learning in Limax. On the other hand, the central nervous system (CNS) of some Pulmonata shows robustness against injury, recovering from nerve injury both at the histological and functional levels. To investigate whether the PC of Limax also shows robustness against nerve injury, we tested whether or not the slugs can acquire and retrieve odor-aversion memory after a long recovery period from PC ablation. When the recovery period is short (7 days), the PC-ablated slugs failed to avoid the conditioned odor. But when the recovery period is long (1 month), the PC-ablated slugs successfully avoided the conditioned odor. These results indicate that the CNS including the PC can recover from injury at least at the functional level.


  1. 1.

    Gelperin, A. (1975) Rapid food-aversion learning by a terrestrial mollusk. Science 189, 567–570.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Kasai, Y., Watanabe, S., Kirino, Y., Matsuo, R. (2006) The procerebrum in necessary for odor-aversion learning in the terrestrial slug Limax valentianus. Learn. Mem. 13, 482–488.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Kim, H., Lee, S. H., Han, J. H., Lee, J. A., Cheang, Y. H., Chang, D. J., Lee, Y. S., Kaang, B. K. (2006) A nucleolar protein ApLLP induces ApC/EBP expression required for long-term synaptic facilitation in Aplysia neurons. Neuron 49, 707–718.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Kimura, T., Suzuki, H., Kono, E., Sekiguchi, T. (1998a) Mapping of interneurons that contribute to food aversive conditioning in the slug brain. Learn. Mem. 4, 376–388.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Kimura, T., Toda, S., Sekiguchi, T., Kirino, Y. (1998b) Behavioral modulation induced by food odor aversive conditioning and its influence on the olfactory responses of an oscillatory brain network in the slug Limax marginatus. Learn. Mem. 4, 365–375.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Matsuo. R., Hitomi, T., Watanabe, S., Kirino, Y. (2002) Delayed-onset amnesia caused by protein synthesis inhibition in odor-taste associative memory of the terrestrial slug Limax valentianus. Neurosci. Lett. 334, 201–205.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Moffett, S. (1995) Neural regeneration in gastropod milluscs. Prog. Neurobiol. 46, 289–330.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Moffett, S., Snyder, K. (1985) Behavioral recovery associated with central nervous system regeneration in the snail Melampus. J. Neurobiol. 16, 193–209.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Nakaya, T., Kawahara, S., Watanabe, S., Lee, D. S., Suzuki, T., Kirino, Y. (2001) Identification and expression of a novel gene in odour-taste associative learning in the terrestrial slug. Genes Cells 6, 43–56.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Zakharov, I. S., Heyes, N. L., Ierusalimsky, V. N., Nowakowski, R. S., Balaban, P. M. (1998) Postembryonic neurogenesis in the procerebrum of the terrestrial snail, Helix lucorum L. J. Neurobiol. 35, 271–276.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to R. Matsuo.

Rights and permissions

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Matsuo, R., Ito, E. Recovery of Learning Ability after the Ablation of the Procerebrum in the Terrestrial Slug, Limax valentianus. BIOLOGIA FUTURA 59, 73–76 (2008).

Download citation


  • Procerebrum
  • Limax
  • odor-aversion learning
  • recovery