Efficiency of the Photosynthetic Apparatus in Developing Needles of Norway Spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.)
The photosynthetic performance of developing spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) needles was investigated. As revealed by previous reports, the biosynthesis of chlorophylls and carotenoids was not following the characteristic chloroplast ultrastructure building up during needle elongation process. The aim of our study was to investigate photosynthetic capability (evaluated by oxygen evolution and chlorophyll a fluorescence kinetics measurements), the dynamics of chloroplast pigments biosynthesis and the expression of major photosynthetic proteins as well as to find out possible correlation between components of issue. Low amounts of chlorophylls and carotenoids, LHC II and Rubisco LSU were detected in the embryonic shoot of vegetative buds. Although PS II was functional, oxygen production was not sufficient to compensate for respiration in the same developmental stage. The light compensation point of respiration was successively lowered during the needle elongation. Nevertheless the significant increase in photosynthetic pigments as well as the high level of expression of LHC II and Rubisco LSU proteins was observed in the later stages of needle development. Our results suggest that, besides light, some other environmental factors could be critical for producing fully functional chloroplasts in rapidly growing young needles.
KeywordsPicea abies chloroplast biogenesis photosynthesis needle development
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
The authors are grateful to the Federation of European Biochemical Societies (FEBS) for supporting this research. We are thanking to Prof. Dr. Karin Krupinska (University of Kiel, Germany) for enabling Hrvoje Lepeduš to do the experimental work in the Laboratory of Cell Biology (Institute of Botany, University of Kiel). Hrvoje Lepeduš is also thanking to Dr. Mark Schlensog for hosting and supporting the chlorophyll fluorescence and oxygen-production measurements.
- 1.Akoyunoglou, G., Argyroudi-Akoyunoglou, J. (1986) Post-translational regulation of chloroplast differentiation. In: Akoyunoglou, G., Senger, H. (eds) Regulation of Chloroplast Differentiation. Proc. Int. Meeting Regulation of Chloroplast Differentiation, Rhodes, Greece, pp. 571–582.Google Scholar
- 8.Cesar, V., Bornman, C. H. (1996) Anatomy of vegetative buds of Norway spruce (Picea abies) with special reference to their exchange from winter to spring. Nat. Croat. 5, 99–108.Google Scholar
- 12.Egger, B., Hampp, R. (1996) Activities of enzymes of starch metabolism in developing Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst] needles. Trees 11, 72–75.Google Scholar
- 13.Fischbach, R. J., Kossmann, B., Panten, H., Steinbrecher, R., Heller, W., Seidlitz, H. K., Sandermann, H., Hertkorn, N., Schnitzler, J. P. (1999) Seasonal accumulation of ultraviolet-B screening pigments in needles of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). Plant, Cell and Environment 22, 27–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 21.Kraus, C. A., Spitteller, G. (1997) Phenolic compounds from ageing shoots of Picea abies. X. Naturforsch 52c, 308–312.Google Scholar
- 24.Lepeduš, H., Cesar, V., Ljubešić, N. (2001) Chloroplast ultrastructure and chlorophyll levels in vegetative buds and needles of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.). Period. Biol. 103, 61–65.Google Scholar
- 25.Lepeduš, H., Cesar, V., Ljubešić, N., Has-Schon, E. (2003) Photo synthetic pigments, chloroplast distribution and fine structure in vegetative buds of two spruce species. Biologia 58, 867–873.Google Scholar
- 32.Schreiber, U., Bilger, W., Neubauer, C. (1994) Chlorophyll fluorescence as a nonintrusive indicator for rapid assessment of in vivo photosynthesis. Ecological Studies 100, 49–70.Google Scholar
- 38.Yamamoto, H. Y., Bassi, R. (1996) Carotenoids: Localisation and function. In: Ort, D. R., Yocum, C. F. (eds) Oxygenic Photosynthesis: The Light Reactions. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Boston, London, pp. 539–563.Google Scholar
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.