Liver and Heart Mitochondria Obtained from Adelie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) Offers High Resistance to Lipid Peroxidation
Lipid peroxidation is generally thought to be a major mechanism of cell injury in aerobic organisms subjected to oxidative stress. All cellular membranes are especially vulnerable to oxidation due to their high concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, birds have special adaptations for preventing membrane damage caused by reactive oxygen species. This study examines fatty acid profiles and susceptibility to lipid peroxidation in liver and heart mitochondria obtained from Adelie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae). The saturated fatty acids in these organelles represent approximately 40–50% of total fatty acids whereas the polyunsaturated fatty acid composition was highly distinctive, characterized by almost equal amounts of 18:2 n-6; 20:4 n-6 and 22:6 n-3 in liver mitochondria, and a higher proportion of 18:2 n-6 compared to 20:4 n-6 and 22:6 n-3 in heart mitochondria. The concentration of total unsaturated fatty acids of liver and heart mitochondria was approximately 50% and 60%, respectively, with a prevalence of oleic acid CI 8:1 n9. The rate C20:4 n6/C18:2 n6 and the unsaturation index was similar in liver and heart mitochondria; 104.33 ± 6.73 and 100.09 ± 3.07, respectively. Light emission originating from these organelles showed no statistically significant differences and the polyunsaturated fatty acid profiles did not change during the lipid peroxidation process.
KeywordsPenguin lipid peroxidation liver heart-mitochondria
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
We thank Med. Vet. César Arcemis for the excellent technical assistance in performing fatty acid analysis.
- 3.Coria, N. R., Spairani, H., Vivequin, S. M., Fontana, R. (1995) Diet of Adelie penguins Pygoscelis adeliae during the post-hatching period at Esperanza Bay, Antarctica, 1987/88. Polar Biology 15, 415–418.Google Scholar
- 7.Gutiérrez, A. M., Reboredo, C. J., Mosca, S. M., Catala, A. (2004) Fatty acid composition and lipid peroxidation induced by ascorbate-Fe2+ in different organs of goose (Anser anser). Comp. Biochem. and Physiol C: Toxicol Pharmacol 137, 123–132.Google Scholar
- 8.Gutiérrez, A. M., Reboredo, G. R., Mosca, S. M., Catala, A. (2006) A. low degree of fatty acidunsat-uration leads to high resistance to lipid peroxidation in mitochondria and microsomes of different organs of quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Mol. Cell. Biochem. 282, 109–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 10.Lowry, O. H., Rosebrough, N. J., Farr, A. L., Randall, R. J. (1951) Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J. Biol. Chem. 193, 265–275.Google Scholar
- 14.Palmer, S. (1994) Antioxidant vitamins and cancer risk. Nutrition 10, 433–434.Google Scholar
- 17.Schneider, W. C., Hogeboom, H. G. (1950) Intracellular distribution of enzymes. Further studies and distribution of cytochrome c in rat liver homogenates. J. Biol. Chem. 178, 123–128.Google Scholar
- 21.Cherel, Y., Verdon, C., Ridoux, V. (1993) Seasonal importance of oceanic myctophids in King penguin diet at Crozet Islands. Polar Biol. 13, 355–357.Google Scholar
- 23.Decrock, F., Groscolas, R., McCartney, R. J., Speakew, B. K. (2001) Transfer of n-3 andn-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids from yolk to embryo during development of the King penguin. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 280, R843-R853.Google Scholar
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.