The aim of this study was to examine the antinociceptive potential of leaves of Ixora coccinea (family: Rubeaceae). One of four doses (500, 750, 1000 or 1500 mg/kg, n=8/dose) of aqueous leaf extract (ALE) or 1 ml of distilled water was orally administered to male rats and antinociceptive activity was ascertained using three models of nociception (tail flick, hot plate and formalin tests). The results showed that ALE possesses considerable antinociceptive activity (when evaluated in hot plate and formalin test but not in tail flick test). The antinociceptive activity of the ALE had a rapid onset (within 1 h) and a fairly long duration of action (up to 5 h) with a peak effect at 3 h. Further, the antinociceptive activity was dose-dependent and was not associated with harmful side-effects or toxicity even following subchronic administration. The antinociceptive action was mediated centrally at the supraspinal level mainly via dopaminergic mechanism. In addition, it is likely that antioxidant activity of the ALE could have played an auxiliary role in inducing antinociception. Dopaminergic and antioxidative activities of ALE could arise, respectively, from its quaternary base alkaloid and flavonoid constituents.
Anonymous, British National Formulary 2000. The British Medical Association and the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, London.
Bowers, M. B., Van Woert, M., Davis, L. (1971) Sexual behavior during L-dopa treatment for Parkinsonism. Am. J. Psychiatry 127, 1691–1693.
de Campos, R. O. P., Santos, A. R. S., Vaz, Z. R., Pinheiro, T. R., Pizzolatti, M. G., Filho, V. C., Monache, F. D., Yunes, R. A., Calixto, J. B. (1997) Antinociceptive properties of the hydroalcoholic extract and preliminary study of a xanthone isolated from Polygala cyparissias. Life Sci. 61, 1619–1630.
Deraniyagala, S. A., Ratnasooriya, W. D., Goonesekera, C. L. (2003) Antinociceptive effect and tox-icological study of the aqueous bark extract of Barringtonia racemosa on rats. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2846, 1–6.
Dharmasiri, M. G., Ratnasooriya, W. D., Thabrew, M. I. (2003) Water extract of leaves and stems of pre-flowering but not flowering plants of Anisomeles indica possesses analgesic and antihyperalgesic activity in rats. Pharm. Biol. 41, 37–44.
Dorman, H. S. D., Deans, S. G., Noble, R. C. (1995) Evaluation in vitro of plant essential oils as natural antioxidants. J. Essent. Oil Res. 7, 645–651.
Farnsworth, N. R. (1998) Phytochemical Screening. Chicago College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois, pp. 32–65.
Farsam, H., Amanlou, M., Dehpour, A. Z., Jahaniani, F. (2000) Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of Biebersteinia multifida DC. root extract. J. Ethnopharmaco. 71, 443–447.
File, S. E., Wardill, A. (1975) Validity of head dipping as a measure of exploration in modified holeboard. Psychopharmacologia 44, 53–57.
Ghai, C. L. (1993) A Textbook of Practical Physiology. Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers Ltd., New Delhi, pp. 119–202.
Halliwell, B. (1994) Free radical antioxidants in human disease: Curiosity, cause or consequence. Lancet 344, 721–724.
Hull, E. M., Du, J., Lorrain, D. S., Matuszewich, L. (1997) Testosteron, preoptic dopamine, and copulation in male rats. Brain Res. Bull. 44, 327–333.
Jayaweera, D. M. A. (1982) Medicinal Plants Used in Ceylon, part I V. National Science Council of Sri Lanka, Colombo, Sri Lanka.
Kaseda, S., Nomoto, M., Iwata, S. (1999) Effect of selegiline on dopamine concentration in the stria-tum of a primate. Brain Res. 815, 44–50.
Latha, P. G., Nayar, M. N. S., Sing, O. V., George, K. R., Panikkar, K. R., Pushpangadan, P. (2001) Isolation of antigenotoxic ursolic acid from Ixora coccinea flowers. Actual Biol. 23, 21–24.
Latha, P. G., Panikkar, K. R. (1998) Cytotoxic and antitumor principles from Ixora coccinea flowers. Cancer Lett. 130, 197–202.
Latha, P. G., Panikkar, K. R. (2001) Chemoprotective effect of Ixora coccinea L. flowers on cisplatin induced toxicity in mice. Phytotherapy Res. 15, 364–366.
Latha, P. G., Panikkar, K. R. (1999) Modulatory effects of Ixora coccinea flower on cyclophos-phamide-induced toxicity in mice. Phytotherapy Res. 13, 517–520.
Luedtke, R. R., Freeman, R. A., Volk, M., Arfan, M., Reinecke, M. G. (2003) Pharmacological survey of medicinal plants for activity at dopamine receptor subtypes. II. Screen for binding activity at the D1 and D2 dopamine receptor subtypes. Pharmaceutical Biol. 41, 45–58.
Miguel, O. G., Calixto, J. B., Santos, A. R. S., Messana, I., Ferrari, F., Filho, V. C., Pizzolatti, M. G., Yunes, R. A. (1996) Chemical and preliminary analgesic evaluation of Geraniin and Furosin isolated from Phyllanthus sellowianus. Planta Medica 62, 97–192.
Rang, H. P., Dale, M. M., Ritter, J. M. (1995) Pharmacology. Churchill, Livingston, London.
Ratnasooriya, W. D., Dharmasiri, M. G. (1999) Water extracts of Psychotria sarmentosa has analgesic and antihyperalgesic activity in rats. Med. Sci. Res. 27, 715–718.
Ratnasooriya, W. D., Deraniyagala, S. A., Bathige, S. D. N. K., Galhena, G., Liyanage, S. S. P., Jayakody, J. R. A. C. (2004) Anti-inflammatory activity of the aqueous leaf extract of Ixora coccinea in rats. J. Pharm. Biol. (in press).
Ratnasooriya, W. D., Galhena, G., Liyanage, S. S. P., Jayakody, J. R. A. C., Ediriwcera, E. R. H. S. S. (2003) Analgesic and antihyperalgesic activities of decoction of Sri Lankan Scoparia dulcis in rats. J. Tropical Med. Plants (in press).
Reena, Z., Sudhakaran, N., Velayudha, C. R., Panicker, P. (1994) Anti-inflammatory and anti-mitot-ic activities of lupeol isolated from the leaves of Ixora coccinea Linn. Indian J. Pharm. Sci. 56, 129–132.
Richardson, J. D., Aanonsen, L., Hargreaves, K. M. (1998) Antihyperalgesic effects of spinal connabinoids. European J. Pharmacol. 345, 145–153.
Sasidharan, V. K. (1997) Search for antibacterial and antifungal activity of some plants of Kerala. Acta Pharm. 47, 47–51.
Tjolsen, A., Berge, O. G., Hunskaar, S., Rosland, J. H., Hole, K. (1992) The formalin test: an evaluation of the method. Pain 51, 5–17.
Wong, C. H., Day, P., Yarmush, J., Wu, W., Zbuzek, U. K. (1994) Nifedipine-induced analgesic after epidural injections in rats. Anesthesia Analgesia 79, 303–306.
About this article
Cite this article
Ratnasooriya, W.D., Deraniyagala, S.A., Bathige, S.D.N.K. et al. Antinociceptive Action of Aqueous Extract of The Leaves of Ixora Coccinea. BIOLOGIA FUTURA 56, 21–34 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1556/ABiol.56.2005.1-2.3
- Ixora coccinea