Acta Biologica Hungarica

, Volume 55, Issue 1–4, pp 31–37 | Cite as

Multisensory Convergence in the Mushroom Bodies of Ants and Bees

  • W. GronenbergEmail author
  • G. O. López-Riquelme


The mushroom bodies, central neuropils in the arthropod brain, are involved in learning and memory and in the control of complex behavior. In most insects, the mushroom bodies receive direct olfactory input in their calyx region. In Hymenoptera, olfactory input is layered in the calyx. In ants, several layers can be discriminated that correspond to different clusters of glomeruli in the antennal lobes, perhaps corresponding to different classes of odors. Only in Hymenoptera, the mushroom body calyx also receives direct visual input from the optic lobes. In bees, six calycal layers receive input from different classes of visual interneurons, probably representing different parts of the visual field and different visual properties. Taken together, the mushroom bodies receive distinct multisensory information in many segregated input layers.


Neuroanatomy learning memory insects multimodal information 


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© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest 2004

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Neurobiology, Arizona Research LaboratoriesUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA
  2. 2.Laboratorio de Neurofisiología Comparada de Invertebrados, Facultad de CienciasUNAMMexico

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