Acta Biologica Hungarica

, Volume 55, Issue 1–4, pp 287–291 | Cite as

Microglia Proliferation as a Response to Activation in the Freshwater Snail Planorbarius Corneus: a BrdU Incorporation Study

  • Elisa PeruzziEmail author
  • D. Sonetti


Invertebrate microglia constitute a class of cells resident in the ganglionic nervous system which are activated after tissue injury or by the presence of pathogens. The microglia activation response includes graduated morpho-functional and biochemical changes and cell proliferation. In this study we verified in the freshwater snail Planorbarius corneus that an activation caused by a traumatic event may induce microglia division. Cell proliferation was assessed immunocytochemically using BrdU incorporation technique and documented on both ganglionic sections and microglia cultured cells at different experimental conditions and times after activation. In addition, we studied the possibility of increasing microglia proliferation by adding to the cultured medium the Macrophage-Colony Stimulating Factor (M-CSF) that has been shown to stimulate specifically this process in vertebrates.


Microglia BrdU proliferation Planorbarius corneus M-CSF 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Dihne, M., Block, F., Korr, H., Topper, R. (2001) Time course of glial proliferation and glial apoptosis following excitotoxic CNS injury. Brain Res. 902, 178–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Eliason, D. A., Cohen, S. A., Baratta, J., Yu, J., Robertson, R. T. (2002) Local proliferation of microglia cells in response to neocortical injury in vitro. Brain Res. Dev. 137, 75–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hao, A. J., Dheen, S. T., Ling, E. A. (2002) Expression of macrophage colony-stimulating factor and its receptor in microglia activation is linked to teratogen-induced neuronal damage. Neuroscience 112, 889–900.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kloss, C. U., Kreutzberg, G. W., Raivich, G. (1997) Proliferation of ramified microglia on an astrocyte monolayer: characterisation of stimulatory and inhibitory cytokines. J. Neurosci. Res. 49, 248–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kreutzberg, G. W. (1996) Microglia: a sensor for pathological events in the CNS. Glia 19, 312–318.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Leibovitz, A. (1963) The growth and maintenance of tissue-cell cultures in free gas exchange with the atmosphere. Am. J. Hyg. 78, 173–180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Norton, W. T. (1999) Cell reactions following acute brain injury: a review. Neurochem. Res. 24, 213–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Polazzi, E., Contestabile, A. (2002) Reciprocal interactions between microglia and neurons: from survival to neuropathology. Rev. Neurosci. 13, 221–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Raivich, G., Haas, S., Werner, A., Klein, M. A., Kloss, C., Kreutzberg, G. W. (1998) Regulation of MCSF receptors on microglia in the normal and injured mouse central nervous system: a quantitative immunofluorescence study using confocal laser microscopy. J. Comp. Neurol. 395, 342–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ringheim, G. E. (1995) Mitogenic effects of interleukin-5 on microglia. Neurosci. Lett. 201, 131–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sonetti, D., Ottaviani, E., Bianchi, F., Rodriguez, M., Stefano, M. L., Scharrer, B., Stefano, G. B. (1994) Microglia in invertebrate ganglia. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 9180–9184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sonetti, D., Ottaviani, E., Stefano, G. B. (1997) Opiate signalling regulates microglia activities in the invertebrates nervous system. Gen. Pharmacol. 29, 39–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest 2004

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dipartimento di Biologia AnimaleUniversit à di Modena e Reggio EmiliaModenaItaly

Personalised recommendations