Community Ecology

, Volume 18, Issue 2, pp 203–213 | Cite as

Impacts of river regulation and other anthropogenic activities on floodplain vegetation: A case study from Sri Lanka

  • S. L. RajakarunaEmail author
  • K. B. Ranawana
  • A. M. T. A. Gunarathne
  • H. M. S. P. Madawala


Since the initiation of large-scale development in late 1970s, the Mahaweli River basin in Sri Lanka has experienced significant changes. However, no comprehensive study has been undertaken so far to evaluate the impacts of river regulation on associated ecosystems including floodplains in the downstream. The present study was aimed at identifying the impacts due to both river regulation and other anthropogenic activities on inland floodplain habitats (locally known as villus) located along the final stretch of the River Mahaweli before reaching the Indian Ocean. Four villus, Handapana (HAN), Bendiya (BEN), Karapola (KAR) and Gengala (GEN), were selected for the study. HAN and BEN can be considered as highly influenced (HI) by river regulation while KAR and GEN as less influenced (LI) due to their respective locations. Due to the absence of pre- regulation vegetation data, HI villus were compared with LI villus in order to explore any potential impacts of river regulation. Vegetation was enumerated using belt transect method. To find out other on-going anthropogenic impacts on these villu ecosystems, a survey was conducted using 100 individuals living in two villages located nearby. The results revealed some significant modification in the composition and the diversity of the vegetation, most possibly due to river regulation and other on-going anthropogenic activities. However, the most notable changes were recorded in the herbaceous layer. Some native aquatic herbaceous species have been completely absent over the period of two decades since the developmental activities begun, while some exotic invasive aquatic species (Eichhornia crassipes) dominated the herbaceous layer in HI villus threatening the survival of the remaining native species. Density and richness of lianas too diminished significantly in HI villus perhaps due to changes of micro-habitat conditions as a result of river regulation and also due to over-harvesting for commercial purposes. The results suggest that these ecosystems have been altered over the years due to culmination of factors including altered flow regimes following river regulation and some on-going human influences. The present study highlights the importance of regulating such human influences on villus including fishing and extracting cane and reed in order to protect these vulnerable ecosystems for future generations. The potential of these ecosystems to develop ecotourism has also been emphasized.


Livelihoods River Mahaweli River regulation Tropical wetland Villus 











Mahaweli Floodplain National Park


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Supplementary material

42974_2017_1802203_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (78 kb)
Table S.1 The detailed list of species recorded during the study in Handapana (HAN-HI), Bendiya( BEN-HI), Karapola (KAR-LI), Gengala (GEN-LI). Presence or absence of the species in study sites are denoted by √ and × respectively. The family that the species belong to, origin of each species (Native= Na, Introduced=IN, Endemic=EN) and their conservation status (CS) according to IUCN categorization (Least concerned= LC, Endangered= En, NT=Nearly threatened, Vulnerable to extinction= VU) is given in the table. Habit of the species are given in brackets (Trees=T, Shrubs=S, Lianas= Li, Herbs= H, Graminoids-Gr).


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© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest 2017

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Authors and Affiliations

  • S. L. Rajakaruna
    • 1
    Email author
  • K. B. Ranawana
    • 2
  • A. M. T. A. Gunarathne
    • 3
  • H. M. S. P. Madawala
    • 3
  1. 1.Postgraduate Institute of ScienceUniversity of PeradeniyaSri Lanka
  2. 2.Department of Zoology, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of PeradeniyaSri Lanka
  3. 3.Department of Botany, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of PeradeniyaSri Lanka

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