Groundwater-dependent ecosystems (GDEs) are threatened by over-extraction of groundwater for human needs across the world. A fundamental understanding of relationships between naturally occurring gradients in depth-to-groundwater (DGW) across landscapes and the ecological properties of vegetation assemblages is essential for effective management of the impacts of groundwater extraction. Little is known, however, about relationships between DGW and the ecology of mesic woodlands in GDEs. Here, we investigated relationships between a naturally occurring DGW gradient and plant species composition, richness and abundance in mesic Eucalyptus woodlands of eastern Australia. Across 16 sites varying in DGW from 2.4 m to 43.7 m, we found that plant species composition varied significantly in relation to DGW, independently of a range of 14 physical and chemical attributes of the environment. Nine understorey species, representing only 7% of the pool of 131 plant species, were identified as contributing to up to 50% of variation in species composition among the study sites. We suggest this dominant pattern driver in the understorey is explained by differential abilities among understorey species in their ability either to tolerate extended dry conditions at deeper DGW sites during periods of low rainfall, or to withstand periodically waterlogged conditions at shallow sites. Plant species richness and total plant abundance (a measure of plant productivity) were not significantly and independently related to DGW or any of the other 14 environmental attributes. Our finding for a direct relationship between DGW and plant species composition provides important reference information on the ecological condition of these mesic woodlands in the absence of groundwater extraction. Such information is vital for setting ecological thresholds that ensure sustainable extraction of groundwater.
Highlands Sandstone Scribbly Gum Woodlands
Highlands Shale Tall Open Forests
Nepean Enriched Sandstone Woodlands
Sydney Catchment Authority
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Hingee, M.C., Eamus, D., Krix, D.W. et al. Patterns of plant species composition in mesic woodlands are related to a naturally occurring depth-to-groundwater gradient. COMMUNITY ECOLOGY 18, 21–30 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1556/168.2017.18.1.3
- Environmental attributes
- Groundwater-dependent ecosystem
- Groundwater extraction
- Species richness
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