Grain Filling Variation in Winter Wheat, Barley and Triticale in Pannonian Environments

Abstract

Knowledge about the comparative development and grain filling of winter cereals under different environmental conditions is important for stable and high yielding crop production. The objective of this work was to compare patterns of grain filling in bread wheat, barley and triticale grown in the Pannonian region, as well as to investigate relationships among grain filling parameters, time to anthesis and grain yield. The trials with 12 winter cereal genotypes were carried out in four successive seasons at the location Novi Sad, Serbia. Results of this study showed that all studied grain filling parameters were significantly influenced by species, cultivar, growing season, and species by growing season interaction. Longer duration of grain filling period and period to maximum grain filling were observed in triticale and wheat cultivars compared with six and two-rowed barley. Two-rowed barley cultivars had a higher grain filling rate than other cultivars. Furthermore, a negative association between time to anthesis and grain yield indicates that cultivars with the long pre-anthesis period are not recommended for the agro-ecological conditions of the Pannonian plain. Generally, medium early cultivars of small grain cereals had the highest grain weight within species and spike type, suggesting that medium early cultivars have a balanced ratio of pre-anthesis and grain filling period. High values of final grain weight in different growing seasons indicate that weather conditions in the Pannonian plain are mainly suitable for grain growth.

References

  1. Archontoulis, S.V., Miguez, F.E. 2015. Nonlinear regression models and applications in agricultural research. Agron. J. 107:786–798.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Barraclough, P.B., Lopez-Bellido R., Hawkesford, M.J. 2014. Genotypic variation in the uptake, partitioning and remobilization of nitrogen during grain-filling in wheat. Field Crops Res. 156:242–248.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Blum, A. 2011. Plant breeding for water limited environments. New York; Springer

  4. Borràs, G., Romagosa, I., van Eeuwijk, F., Slafer, G.A. 2009. Genetic variability in the duration of pre-heading phases and relationships with leaf appearance and tillering dynamics in a barley population. Field Crops Res. 113:95–104.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Brdar, M., Kraljević-Balalić, M., Kobiljski, B. 2008. The parameters of grain filling and yield components in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum). Cent. Eur. J. Biol. 3:75–82.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Ceccarelli, S. 1989. Wide adaptation. How wide? Euphytica 40:197–205.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Cossani, C.M., Slafer, G.A., Savin, R. 2011. Do barley and wheat (bread and durum) differ in grain weight stability through seasons and water–nitrogen treatments in a Mediterranean location? Field Crops Res. 121:240–247.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Darroch, B.A., Baker, R.J. 1990. Grain filling in three spring wheat genotypes: statistical analysis. Crop Sci. 30:525–529.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Dias, A.S., Lindon, F.C. 2009. Evaluation of grain filling rate and duration in bread wheat and durum wheat under heat stress after anthesis. J. Agron. Crop Sci. 195:137–147.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). 2014. FAOSTAT database. http://faostat3.fao.orghome/E

  11. Gallagher, J.N. 1979. Field studies of cereal leaf growth: I. Initiation and expansion in relation to temperature and ontogeny. J. Exp. Bot. 117:625–636.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Gonzales, F.G., Aldabe, M.L., Terrile, I.I., Rondanini, D.P. 2014. Grain weight response to different post-flowering source: sink ratios in modern high-yielding Argentinean wheats differing in spike fruiting efficiency. Crop Sci. 54:297–309.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Griffiths, S., Wingen, L., Pietragalla, J., García, G.A., Hasan, A., Miralles, D.J., Calderini, D.F., Ankleshwaria, J.B., Waite, M.L., Simmonds, J., Snape, J., Reynolds, M. 2015. Genetic dissection of grain size and grain number trade-offs in CIMMYT wheat germplasm. PLoS ONE 10, e0118847.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Jocković, B., Mladenov, N., Hristov, N., Aćin, V., Djalović, I. 2014. Interrelationship of grain filling rate and other traits that affect the yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Rom. Agric. Res. 31:81–87.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Koutroubas, S.D., Fotiadis, S., Damalas, C.A., Papageorgiou, M. 2014. Grain-filling patterns and nitrogen utilization efficiency of spelt (Triticum spelta) under Mediterranean conditions. J. Agric. Sci. 152:716–730.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. McGoverin C.M., Snyders, F., Muller, N., Botes, W., Fox, G., Manley, M. 2011. A review of triticale uses and the effect of growth environment on grain quality. J. Sci. Food Agric. 91:1155–1165.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Mirosavljević, M., Pržulj, N., Momčilović, V., Hristov, N., Maksimović, I. 2015. Dry matter accumulation and remobilization in winter barley as affected by genotype and sowing date. Genetika 47:751–763.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Peltonen-Sainio, P., Kangas, A., Salo, Y., Jauhiainen, L. 2007. Grain number dominates grain weight in temperate cereal yield determination: evidence based on 30 years of multi-location trials. Field Crops Res. 100:179–188.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Pradhan, G.P., Prasad, P.V., Fritz, A.K., Kirkham, M.B., Gill, B.S. 2012. Effects of drought and high temperature stress on synthetic hexaploid wheat. Funct. Plant Biol. 39:190–119.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Pržulj, N., Momčilović, V. 2012. Spring barley performances in the Pannonian zone. Genetika 44:499–512.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Pržulj, N., Mirosavljević, M., Čanak, P., Zorić, M., Boćanski, J. 2015. Evaluation of spring barley performance by biplot analysis. Cereal Res. Commun. 43:692–703.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Reynolds, M.P., Foulkes, M.J., Slafer, G.A., Berry, P.M., Parry, M.A.J., Snape, J.W., Angus, W.J. 2009. Raising yield potential in wheat. J. Exp. Bot. 60:1899–1918.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Royo, C., Tribo, F. 1997. Triticale and barley for grain and for dual-purpose (forage plus grain) in a Mediterranean-type environment. 1. Growth analyses. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 48:411–421.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Sadras, V.O. 2007. Evolutionary aspects of the trade- off between seed size and number in crops. Field Crops Res. 100:125–138.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Sanna, G., Giunta, F., Motzo, R., Mastrangelo, A.M., De Vita, P. 2014. Genetic variation for the duration of pre-anthesis development in durum wheat and its interaction with vernalization treatment and photoperiod. J. Exp. Bot. 65:3177–3188.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Semenov, M.A., Martre, P., Jamieson, P.D. 2009. Quantifying effects of simple wheat traits on yield in water-limited environments using a modeling approach. Agric. For. Meteorol. 149:1095–1104.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Sun, Y., Yan, X., Zhang, S., Wang, N. 2017. Grain yield and associated photosynthesis characteristics during dryland winter wheat cultivar replacement since 1940 on the Loess Plateau as affected by seeding rate. Emir. J. Food Agric. 29:51–58.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Tiwari, C.H., Wallwork, R., Dhari, B., Arum, V.K., Mishra, A., Joshi, K. 2012. Exploring the possibility of obtaining terminal heat tolerance in a double haploid population of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the eastern Gangetic plains of India. Field Crops Res. 135:1–9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Voltas, J., van Eeuwijk, F.A., Sombrero, A., Lafargad, A., Igartua, E., Romagosa, I. 1999. Integrating statistical and ecophysiological analyses of genotype by environment interaction for grain filling of barley I. Individual grain weight. Field Crops Res. 62:63–74.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Wang, R.X., Hai, L., Zhang, X.Y., You, G.Y., Yan, C.S., Xiao, S.H. 2009. QTL mapping for grain filling rate and yield-related traits in RILs of the Chinese winter wheat population Heshangmai × Yu8679. Theor. Appl. Genet. 118:313–325.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Xie Q., Mayes, S., Sparkes, D. L. 2015. Carpel size, grain filling, and morphology determine individual grain weight in wheat. J. Exp. Bot. 66:6715–6730.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to M. Mirosavljević.

Additional information

Communicated by T. Harangozó and M. Taylor

Electronic supplementary material

Rights and permissions

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Mirosavljević, M., Momčilović, V., Čanak, P. et al. Grain Filling Variation in Winter Wheat, Barley and Triticale in Pannonian Environments. CEREAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS 46, 697–706 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1556/0806.46.2018.036

Download citation

Keywords

  • cultivar
  • grain filling rate
  • grain filling duration
  • time to anthesis
  • winter Cereals