Cereal Research Communications

, Volume 46, Issue 3, pp 545–557 | Cite as

A Maximin-minimax Approach for Identifying Drought Tolerant Genotypes Based on Yield Potential and Loss in Durum Wheat

  • R. MohamandiEmail author
Open Access


Drought is the major cause of durum wheat yield losses in the Mediterranean and many other regions where the crop is not normally irrigated. Over three years (2010–13), 24 durum wheat genotypes representing diverse genetic materials were tested under drought and irrigated conditions. The main objectives were to assess the degree of genotypic variation for drought tolerance, characterize genotypic differences in response to drought, and identify sources of germplasm with greater drought tolerance than old and new cultivars. The percent reduction in average grain yield under drought conditions as compared to irrigated conditions was maximum (69%) during 2012–13, followed by 2010–2011 (33%) and 2011–2012 (15%). The average yields of genotypes under drought conditions differed significantly, which ranged from 1174 (correspond to old variety) to 2086 kg/ha (correspond to breeding line G2). The maximin-minimax approach, yield tolerance index (YTI) and three-dimensional (3-D) plot were used to classify genotypes for drought tolerance and yield productivity. Based on the results, two genotypes were identified as resistant and high yielding (G3 and G20), and eight genotypes (G2, G22, G8, G11, G15, G1, G9 and G5) were found to be high yielding and tolerant to drought conditions. Among the methods, the maximin–minimax approach appears to be more useful in identifying high yielding and drought tolerant genotypes as it seeks to minimize percentage yield loss while maximizing yield potential. In conclusion, considerable variability in yield and drought tolerance was observed for the durum wheat genotypes, which could be exploited at improving drought tolerance in durum wheat breeding program.


durum wheat drought stress maximin-minimax approach yield tolerance index 

Supplementary material

42976_2018_4603545_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (222 kb)
Supplementary material, approximately 228 KB.


  1. Benmahammed, A., Djekoun, A., Kribaa, M., Bouzerzour, H. 2010. Assessment of stress tolerance in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) advanced breeding lines under semi-arid conditions of the eastern high plateaus of Algeria. Euphytica 172:383–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Blum, A. 2011. Drought resistance – is it really a complex trait? Func. Plant Biol. 38:753–757.Google Scholar
  3. Blum, A. 2005. Drought resistance, water-use efficiency, and yield potential – are they compatible, dissonant, or mutually exclusive? Aust. J. Agri. Res. 56:1159–1168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Blum, A. 1996. Crop responses to drought and the interpretation of adaptation. Plant Growth Regulation 20:135–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bhatia, V.S., Jumrani, K. 2016. A maximin–minimax approach for classifying soybean genotypes for drought tolerance based on yield potential and loss. Plant Breed. 135:691–700.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cate, R.B., Nelson, L.A. 1965. A rapid method for correlation of soil test analyses with plant response data. International Soil Testing Series Technical Bulletins no. 1.Google Scholar
  7. Cattivelli, L., Rizza, F., Badeck, F.-W., Mazzucotelli, E., Mastrangelo, A.M., Francia, E., Marè, C., Tondelli, A., Stanca, A.M. 2008. Drought tolerance improvement in crop plants: An integrated view from breeding to genomics. Field Crops Res. 105:1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. del Pozo, A., Yáñez, A., Matus, I., Tapia, G., Castillo, D., Araus, J.L. (2016). Physiological traits associated with wheat yield potential and performance under water-stress in a Mediterranean environment. Front. Plant Sci. 7:987.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Dodig, D., Zoric, M., Kandic, V., Perovic, D., Momirovic, G.S. 2012. Comparison of responses to drought stress of 100 wheat accessions and landraces to identify opportunities for improving wheat drought resistance. Plant Breed. 131:369–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fernandez, G.C. 1992. Effective selection criteria for assessing plant stress tolerance. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Adaptation of Vegetables and Other Food Crops in Temperature and Water Stress. Tainan, Taiwan: AVRDC, 257–270.Google Scholar
  11. Long, S.P., Ainsworth, E.A., Leakey, A.D.B., Morgan, P.B. 2005. Global food insecurity. Treatment of major food crops with elevated CO2 or ozone under large-scale fully open-air conditions suggests recent models may have overestimated future yields. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 360:2011–2020.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Middleton, N., Stringer, L., Goudle, A., Thomas, D. 2011. The forgotten billion: MDG achievement in the drylands. New York: United Nations Development Programme.Google Scholar
  13. Mohammadi, R. 2016. Efficiency of yield-based drought tolerance indices to identify tolerant genotypes in durum wheat. Euphytica 211:71–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Mohammadi, R., Sadeghzadeh, D., Armion, M., Amri, A. 2011. Evaluation of durum wheat experimental lines under different climate and water regime conditions of Iran. Crop Pas. Sci. 62:137–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Nouri, A., Etminan, A., Teixeira daSilva, J.A., Mohammadi, R. 2011. Assessment of yield, yield-related traits and drought tolerance of durum wheat genotypes (Triticum turgidum var. durum Desf.). Aust. J. Crop Sci. 5:8–16.Google Scholar
  16. Ober, E.S., Clark, C.J.A., Le Bloa, M., Royal, A., Jaggard, K.W., Pidgeon, J.D. 2004. Assessing the genetic resources to improve drought tolerance in sugar beet: agronomic traits of diverse genotypes under droughted and irrigated conditions. Field Crop Res. 90:213–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Odulaja, A., Nokoe, S. 1993. A maximin-minimax approach for classifying crop varieties into resistant groups based on yield potential and loss. Inter.l J. Pest Manag. 39:64–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Pretty, J., Olsson, L., Farage, P., Warren, A., Tschakert, P., Ardö, J. 2005. Carbon sequestration in dryland soils. World Soil Resources Reports 102. Rome, Italy: FAO Publications.Google Scholar
  19. Ramya, P., Singh, G.P., Jain, N., Singh, P.K., Pandey, M.K., Sharma, K., Kumar, A., krishna, H., Prabhu, K.V. 2016. Effect of Recurrent Selection on Drought Tolerance and Related Morpho-Physiological Traits in Bread Wheat. PLoS One 14:11(6), e0156869.Google Scholar
  20. Sánchez-García, M., Royo, C., Aparicio, N., Martín-Sánchez, A., Álvaro, F. 2013. Genetic improvement of bread wheat yield and associated traits in Spain during the 20th century. J. Agri. Sci. 151:105–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Sio-Se-Mardeh, A., Ahmadi, A., Poustini, K., Mohammadi, V. 2006. Evaluation of drought resistance indices under various environmental conditions. Field Crops Res. 98:222–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Wassmann, R., Jagadish, S.V.K., Sumfleth, K., Pathak, H., Howell, G., Ismail, A., Serraj, R., Redona, E., Singh, R.K., Heuer, S. 2009. Regional vulnerability of climate change: impacts on Asian rice production and scope for adaptation. Adv. Agron. 102:91–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Yadav, O.P., Bhatnagar, S.K. 2001. Evaluation of indices for identification of pearl millet cultivars adapted to stress and non stress conditions. Field Crops Res. 70:201–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest 2018

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dryland Agricultural Research Institute, Sararood branchAgricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO)KermanshahIran

Personalised recommendations