This study aimed to clarify the genetic mechanisms behind wheat flour color. Flour color-related traits (L*, a*, and b*) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity are important parameters that influence the end-use quality of wheat. Dissecting the genetic bases and exploring important chromosomal loci of these traits are extremely important for improving wheat quality. The diverse panel of 205 elite wheat varieties (lines) was genotyped using a high-density Illumina iSelect 90K single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) assay to disclose the genetic mechanism of flour color-related traits and PPO activity. In 2 different environments and their mean values (MV), 28, 30, 24, and 12 marker-trait associations (MTAs) were identified for L*, a*, b* traits, and PPO activity, respectively. A single locus could explain from 5.52% to 20.01% of the phenotypic variation for all analyzed traits. Among them, 5 highly significant SNPs (P ≤ 0.0001), 11 stable SNPs (detected in all environments) and 25 multitrait MTAs were identified. Especially, BS00000020_51 showed pleiotropic effects on L*, a*, and b*, and was detected in all environments with the highest phenotypic contribution rates. Furthermore, this SNP was also found to be co-associated with wheat grain hardness, ash content, and pasting temperature of starch in previous studies. The identification of these significantly associated SNPs is helpful in revealing the genetic mechanisms of wheat color-related traits, and also provides a reference for follow-up molecular marker-assisted selection in wheat breeding.
Akhunov, E., Nicolet, C., Dvorak, J. 2009. Single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping in polyploid wheat with the Illumina GoldenGate assay. Theor Appl. Genet. 119:507–517.
Bordes, J., Ravel, C., Gouis, J.L., Lapierre, A., Charmet, G., Balfourier, F. 2011. Use of a global wheat core collection for association analysis of flour and dough quality traits. J Cereal Sci. 54:137–147.
Chen, G.F. 2016. Construction of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genetic map and GWAS for agronomic and quality traits using SNP marker. Dissertation, Shandong Agricultural university, China
Chen, G.F., Zhang, H., Deng, Z.Y., Wu, R.G., Li, D.M., Wang, M.Y. 2016. Genome-wide association study for kernel weight-related traits using SNPs in a Chinese winter wheat population. Euphytica 212:1–13.
Demeke, T., Morris, C.F., Campbell, K.G. 2001. Wheat polyphenol oxidase: distribution and genetic mapping in three inbred line populations. Crop Sci. 41:1750–1757.
Flint-Garcia, S.A., Thornsberry, J.M., Buckler, E.S. 2003. Structure of linkage disequilibrium in plants. Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 54:357–374.
Fulton, T.M., Beck-Bunn, T., Emmatty, D., Eshed, Y., Lopez, J., Petiard, V. 1997. QTL analysis of an advanced backcross of Lycopersicon peruvianum to the cultivated tomato and comparisons with QTLs found in other wild species. Theor. Appl. Genet. 95:881–894.
Hu, R.B., Tian, J.C., Lu, J.H. 2004. Effect of genotype and environment on polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). J. Chinese Cereals Oils Assoc. 19:16–18, 22.
Humphries, J.M., Graham, R.D., Mares, D.J. 2004. Application of reflectance color measurement to the estimation of carotene and lutein content in wheat and triticale. J. Cereal Sci. 40:151–159.
Ingvarsson, P.K., Nathaniel, R.S. 2011. Association genetics of complex traits in plants. New Phytol. 189:909–922.
Kruger, J.E., Matsuo, R.R., Preston, K. 1992. A comparison of methods for the prediction of Cantonese noodle colour. Can. J. Plant Sci. 72:1021–1029.
Liu, K., Deng, Z.Y., Zhang, Y., Wang, F.F., Liu, T.T., Li, Q.F. 2017. Linkage analysis and genome-wide association study of QTLs controlling stem-breaking-strength-related traits in wheat. Acta. Agron. Sin. 43:483–495.
McCartney, C.A., Somers, D.J., Lukow, O., Ames, N., Noll, J., Cloutier, S. 2006. QTL analysis of quality traits in the spring wheat cross RL4452 × ‘AC Domain’. Plant Breeding 125:565–575.
Morris, C.F., Jeffers, H.C., Engle, D.E. 2000. Effect of processing, formula and measurement variables on alkaline noodle color-Toward an optimized laboratory system. Cereal Chem. 77:77–85.
Moses, O.K., Liavoga, A., Yong, K.J., Bagorogoza, K. 2001. Activity and inhibition of polyphenol oxidase in extracts of bran and other milling fractions from a variety of wheat cultivars. Cereal Chem. 78:514–520.
Oliver, J.R., Blakeney, A.B., Allen, H.M. 1992. Measurement of flour color in color space parameters. Cereal Chem. 69:546–551.
Purcell, S., Neale, B., Todd-Brown, K., Thomas, L., Ferreira, M., Bender, D. 2007. PLINK: a tool set for whole-genome association and population-based linkage analyses. Am. Human Genet. 81:559–575.
Raman, R., Raman, H., Johnstone, K., Lisle, C., Smith, A., Matin, P. 2005. Genetic and in silico comparative mapping of the polyphenol oxidase gene in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Funct. Integr. Genomics 5:185–200.
Roncallo, P.F., Cervigni, G.L., Jensen, C., Miranda, R., Carrera, A.D., Helguera, M. 2012. QTL analysis of main and epistatic effects for flour color traits in durum wheat. Euphytica 185:77–92.
Sun, X.D., Wang, L.K., Ren, H.B., Lan, J. 2002. The application of tristimulus colorimeter in the determination of flour color. Technol. Oil Food 10:31–33.
Thumma, B.R., Naidu, B.P., Chandra, A., Cameron, D.F., Bahnisch, L.M., Liu, C. 2001. Identification of causal relationships among traits related to drought resistance in Stylosanthes scabra using QTL analysis. J. Exp. Bot. 52:203–214.
Tsilo, T.J., Hareland, G.A., Chao, S., Anderson, J.A. 2011. Genetic mapping and QTL Analysis of flour color and milling yield related traits using recombinant inbred lines in hard red spring wheat. Crop Sci. 51:237–246.
Wang, S.C., Wong, D., Forrest, K., Allen, A., Chao, S., Huang, B. E. 2014. Characterization of polyploid wheat genomic diversity using a high-density 90000 single nucleotide polymorphism array. Plant Biotechnol. J. 12:787–796.
Yu, H.X., Xiao, J., Tian, J.C. 2014. Genome-wide association analysis of flour color (whiteness) using DArT markers in common Wheat. Acta Agron. Sin. 40:2198–2202.
Zhai, S.N., He, Z.H., Wen, W.E., Jin, H., Liu, J.D., Zhang, Y. 2016. Genome-wide linkage mapping of flour color-related traits and polyphenol oxidase activity in common wheat. Theor. Appl. Genet. 129:377–394.
Zhang, K.P., Chen, G.F., Zhao, L., Liu, B., Xu, X.B., Tian, J.C. 2009a. Molecular genetic analysis of flour color using a doubled haploid population in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Euphytica 165:471–484.
Zhang, K.P., Wang, J.J., Zhang, L.Y., Rong, C.W., Zhao, F.W., Peng, T. 2013. Association analysis of genomic loci important for grain weight control in elite common wheat varieties cultivated with variable water and fertiliser supply. PLoS One 8:1–17.
Zhang, X., Tian, J.C. 2008. The color advantage of Chinese wheat with high whiteness and analysis of factors affecting color formation. Sci. Agr. Sin. 41:347–353.
Zhang, X., Tian, J.C., Zhu, D.M. 2009b. Correlation between quality traits and color of flour and dough sheet in RIL populations. J. Chinese Cereals Oils Assoc. 24:1–6.
Zhang, Y.L., Wu, Y.P., Xiao, Y.G., He, Z.H., Zhang, Y., Yan, J. 2009c. QTL mapping for flour and noodle colour components and yellow pigment content in common wheat. Euphytica 165:435–444.
Zhao, Y., Sun, H.Y., Wang, Y.Y., Pu, Y.Y., Kong, F.M., Li, S. S. 2013. QTL mapping for the color, carotenoids and polyphenol oxidase activity of flour in recombinant inbred lines of wheat. Aust. J. Crop Sci. 7:328–337.
Communicated by A. Börner
Electronic supplementary material
About this article
Cite this article
Jiang, X.L., Chen, G.F., Li, X.J. et al. Genome-wide Association Study for Flour Color-related Traits and Polyphenol Oxidase Activity in Common Wheat. CEREAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS 46, 388–398 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1556/0806.46.2018.027
- flour color-related traits
- bread wheat
- SNP marker