Cereal Research Communications

, Volume 45, Issue 3, pp 500–511 | Cite as

GGE Biplot and AMMI Analysis of Barley Yield Performance in Iran

  • B. Vaezi
  • A. Pour-AboughadarehEmail author
  • R. Mohammadi
  • M. Armion
  • A. Mehraban
  • T. Hossein-Pour
  • M. Dorii


Successful production and development of stable and adaptable cultivars only depend on the positive results achieved from the interaction between genotype and environment that consequently has significant effect on breeding strategies. The objectives of this study were to evaluate genotype by environment interactions for grain yield in barley advanced lines and to determine their stability and general adaptability. For these purposes, 18 advanced lines along with two local cultivars were evaluated at five locations (Gachsaran, Lorestan, Ilam, Moghan and Gonbad) during three consecutive years (2012–2015). The results of the AMMI analysis indicated that main effects due to genotype (G), environment (E) and GE interaction as well as four interaction principal component axes were significant, representing differential responses of the lines to the environments and the need for stability analysis. According to AMMI stability parameters, lines G5 and G7 were the most stable lines across environments. Biplot analysis determined two barley mega-environments in Iran. The first mega-environment contained of Ilam and Gonbad locations, where the recommended G13, G19 and G1 produced the highest yields. The second mega-environment comprised of Lorestan, Gachsarn and Moghan locations, where G2, G9, G5 and G7 were the best adapted lines. Our results revealed that lines G5, G7, G9 and G17 are suggested for further inclusion in the breeding program due to its high grain yield, and among them G5 recommended as the most stable lines for variable semi-warm and warm environments. In addition, our results indicated the efficiency of AMMI and GGE biplot techniques for selecting genotypes that are stable, high yielding, and responsive.


barley genotype × environment interaction GGE biplot mega-environment 


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GGE Biplot and AMMI Analysis of Barley Yield Performance in Iran


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© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest 2017

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. Vaezi
    • 1
  • A. Pour-Aboughadareh
    • 2
    Email author
  • R. Mohammadi
    • 3
  • M. Armion
    • 4
  • A. Mehraban
    • 5
  • T. Hossein-Pour
    • 6
  • M. Dorii
    • 7
  1. 1.Kohgiluyeh and Boyerahmad Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education CenterAgricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO)YasujIran
  2. 2.Department of Crop production and BreedingImam Khomeini International UniversityQazvinIran
  3. 3.Golestan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural ResearchEducation and Extension Organization (AREEO)GolestanIran
  4. 4.Ilam Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural ResearchEducation and Extension Organization (AREEO)IlamIran
  5. 5.Ardabil Agricultural and Natural Resources Research CenterAgricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO)ArdebilIran
  6. 6.Lorestan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural ResearchEducation and Extension Organization (AREEO)LorestanIran
  7. 7.Seed and Plant Certification and Registration Institute (SPCRI)KarajIran

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