Advertisement

Cereal Research Communications

, Volume 45, Issue 3, pp 442–455 | Cite as

Genotypic Variation in Nutritive and Bioactive Composition of Foxtail Millet

  • A. MikulajováEmail author
  • D. Šedivá
  • M. Čertík
  • P. Gereková
  • K. Németh
  • E. Hybenová
Article

Abstract

Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) genotypes with red and yellow colour of grain bran were examined and compared for their content of nutritive components, fatty acids and phenolic compounds profile. Moreover, the antioxidant properties were investigated using three different methods. Foxtail millet genotypes contained 14.2% of protein, 5.0% of fat and 4.3% of soluble sugars, on average. Linoleic acid was the most abundant unsaturated fatty acid and palmitic acid was the most abundant saturated fatty acid. Four hydroxybenzoic acids (gallic, protocatechuic, vanillic and syringic acid) and two hydroxycinnamic acids (ferulic and p-coumaric acid) were identified and quantified. All genotypes exhibited effective inhibition of free radicals. Nevertheless, ferrous ion chelating activity was weak. Antioxidant properties of foxtail millet genotypes were closely associated with the presence of phenolics. A relationship between intensity of grain colour and antioxidant properties as well as phenolic compounds content, was observed. We can conclude that the content of evaluated parameters varied among foxtail millet genotypes, therefore their assessment and selection is desirable in order to cultivate crops and produce foods with advanced nutritional and antioxidant properties.

Keywords

foxtail millet nutrient fatty acids phenolic compounds antioxidant activity 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Supplementary material

42976_2017_4503442_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (156 kb)
Genotypic Variation in Nutritive and Bioactive Composition of Foxtail Millet

References

  1. Alvarez-Jubete, L., Arendt, E.K., Gallagher, E. 2010. Nutritive value of pseudocereals and their increasing use as functional gluten-free ingredients. Trends Food Sci. Tech. 21:106–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amadou, I., Le, G.W., Amza, T., Sun, J., Shi, Y.H. 2013. Purification and characterization of foxtail millet-derived peptides with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Food Res. Int. 51:422–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chandrasekara, A., Shahidi, F. 2011. Determination of antioxidant activity in free and hydrolyzed fractions of millet grains and characterization of their phenolic profiles by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn. J. Funct. Foods 3:144–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chandrasekara, A., Naczk, M., Shahidi, F. 2012. Effect of processing on the antioxidant activity of millet grains. Food Chem. 133:1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chlopicka, J., Pasko, P., Gorinstein, S., Jedryas, A., Zagrodzki, P. 2012. Total phenolic and total flavonoid content, antioxidant activity and sensory evaluation of pseudocereal breads. LWT – Food Sci. Technol. 46:548–555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Čertík, M., Andráši, P., Šajbidor, J. 1996. Effect of extraction methods on lipid yield and fatty acid composition of lipid classes containing gama-linolenic acid extracted from fungi. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 73:357–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Čertík, M., Shimizu, S. 2000. Kinetic analysis of oil biosynthesis by arachidonic acid-producing fungus, Mortierella alpina 1S-4. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 54:224–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Devisetti, R., Yadahally, S.N., Bhattacharya, S. 2014. Nutrients and antinutrients in foxtail and proso millet milled fractions: Evaluation of their flour functionality. LWT – Food Sci. Technol. 59:889–895.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. FAO 1994. Food and Nutrition Paper No. 57. Fats and oils in human nutrition: Report of a joint expert consultation. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Rome, Italy.Google Scholar
  10. FAO 2010. Food and Nutrition Paper No. 91. Fats and fatty acids in human nutrition: Report of an expert consultation. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Rome, Italy.Google Scholar
  11. Gülçın, İ., Oktay, M., Kıreçcı, E., Küfrevıoǧlu, Ö.İ. 2003. Screening of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) seed extracts. Food Chem. 83:371–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hegde, P.S., Chandra, T.S. 2005. ESR spectroscopic study reveals higher free radical quenching potential in kodo millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum) compared to other millets. Food Chem. 92:177–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Heleno, S.A., Martins, A., Queiroz, M.J.R.P., Ferreira, I.C.F.R. 2015. Bioactivity of phenolic acids: Metabolites versus parent compounds: A review. Food Chem. 173:501–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ismail, A., Marjan, Z.M., Foong, C.W. 2004. Total antioxidant activity and phenolic content in selected vegetables. Food Chem. 87:581–586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. ISO 11085:2008. Cereals and cereal products – Determination of total fat content. International Organization for Standardization. Geneva, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  16. ISO 20483:2006. Cereals and pulses – Determination of the nitrogen content and calculation of the crude protein content – Kjeldahl method. International Organization for Standardization. Geneva, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  17. ISO 712:2009. Cereals and cereal products – Determination of moisture content – Reference method. International Organization for Standardization. Geneva, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  18. Kamara, T.K., Zhu, K., Amadou, A., Tarawalie, T., Zhou, H. 2009. Functionality, in vitro digestibility and physicochemical properties of two varieties of defatted foxtail millet protein concentrates. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 10:5224–5238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kreft, S., Štrukelj, B., Gaberščik, A., Kreft, I. 2002. Rutin in buckwheat herbs grown at different UV-B radiation levels: comparison of two UV spectrophotometric and an HPLC method. J. Exp. Bot. 53:1801–1804.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Makris, D.P., Rossiter, J.T. 2001. Domestic processing of onion bulbs (Allium cepa) and asparagus spears (Asparagus officinalis): effect on flavonol content and antioxidant status. J. Agric. Food Chem. 49:3216– 3222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mathew, S., Abraham, T.E., Zakaria, Z.A. 2015. Reactivity of phenolic compounds towards free radicals under in vitro conditions. J. Food Sci. Technol. 52:5790–5798.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mikulajová, A., Takácsová, M., Alexy, P., Brindzová, L. 2007. Optimalization of extraction of phenolic compounds from buckwheat on the basis of results of experimental design method. Chem. Listy 101:563–568. (in Slovakian)Google Scholar
  23. Mikulajová, A., Hybenová, E., Gereková, P., Németh, K., Vojteková, S., Kokindová, M. 2008. Presence of selected components in wheat genotypes. Book of Contributions of the XVII. Int. Conf.: Analytical Methods and Human Health. Nový Smokovec, Slovakia, pp. 6–9.Google Scholar
  24. Rajesh, P.M., Natvar, P.J. 2011. In vitro antioxidant activity of coumarin compounds by DPPH, super oxide and nitric oxide free radical scavenging methods. J. Adv. Pharm. Edu. Res. 1:52–68.Google Scholar
  25. Simopoulos, A.P. 2002. The importance of the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acids. Biomed. Pharmacother. 56:365–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. STN 56 0512:1973. Testing of flour-milling products made of wheat and rye. Slovak Standards Institute. Bratislava, Slovakia.Google Scholar
  27. Yen, G.Ch., Chen, H.Y. 1995. Antioxidant activity of various tea extracts in relation to their mutagenicity. J. Agric. Food. Chem. 43:27–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Yu, L., Haley, S., Perret, J., Harris, M. 2004. Comparison of wheat flours grown at different locations for their antioxidant properties. Food Chem. 86:11–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Yumrutas, O., Saygideger, S.D. 2010. Determination of in vitro antioxidant activities of different extracts of Marrubium parviflorum Fish et Mey. and Lamiumam plexicaule L. from south east of Turkey. J. Med. Plants Res. 4:2164–2172.Google Scholar
  30. Zhang, L.Z., Liu, R.H. 2015. Phenolic and carotenoid profiles and antiproliferative activity of foxtail millet. Food Chem. 174:495–501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest 2017

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Mikulajová
    • 1
    Email author
  • D. Šedivá
    • 1
  • M. Čertík
    • 2
  • P. Gereková
    • 1
  • K. Németh
    • 3
  • E. Hybenová
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Nutrition and Food Quality AssessmentUSA
  2. 2.Institute of Biotechnology, Faculty of Chemical and Food TechnologySlovak University of TechnologyBratislavaSlovak Republic
  3. 3.Food Research InstituteBratislavaSlovak Republic

Personalised recommendations