Hybrid Maturity Influence on Maize Yield and Yield Component Response to Plant Population in Croatia and Nebraska

Abstract

Maize (Zea mays L.) yield component analysis is limited. Research was conducted in 2012 and 2013 at Zagreb, Croatia and Mead, Nebraska, United States with the objective to determine the influence of environment, hybrid maturity, and plant population (PP) on maize yield and yield components. Three maturity classes of maize hybrids were produced at five PP ranging from 65,000 to 105,000 plants ha−1 under rainfed conditions. Yield, ears m−2, rows ear−1, ear circumference, kernels ear−1, kernels row−1, ear length, and kernel weight were determined. Average yield was 10.7 t ha−1, but was variable for hybrids across PP. The early maturity-hybrids had lesser ear circumference, more kernels ear−1, greater ear length, and fewer rows ear−1 than mid- and late-maturity hybrids. Kernels ear−1 had the highest correlation with yield (r = 0.47; P < 0.01 for early-maturity hybrids; r = 0.55; P < 0.01 for the mid- and late-maturity hybrids). Path analysis indicated that ears m−2, kernels ear−1 and kernel weight had similar direct effects on yield for early-maturity hybrids (R = 0.41 to 0.48) while kernels ear−1 had the largest direct effect (R = 0.58 versus 0.32 to 0.36) for the midand late-maturity hybrids. Rows ear−1 had an indirect effects on yield (R = 0.30 to 0.33) for all hybrids, while kernels row−1 had indirect effect (R = 0.46) on yield for mid- and latematurity hybrids. Yield component compensation was different for early-maturity hybrid than the mid- and late-maturity hybrids, likely due to the proportion of southern dent and northern flint germplasm present in these hybrids.

References

  1. Abendroth, L.J., Elmore, R.W., Boyer, M.J., Marlay, S.K. 2011. Corn Growth and Development. PMR 1009. Iowa State Univ. Ext., Ames, IA, USA.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Agrama, H.A.S. 1996. Sequential path analysis of grain yield and its components in maize. Plant Breeding 115:343–346.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Bavec, F., Bavec, M. 2002. Effects of plant population on leaf area index, cob characteristics and grain yield of early maturing maize cultivars (FAO 100-400). Eur. J. Agron. 16:151–159.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Brown, W.L., Anderson, E. 1947. The northern flint corns. Annuals of the Missouri Botanical Gardens 34:1–8.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Brown, W.L., Anderson, E. 1948. The southern dent corns. Annuals of the Missouri Botanical Gardens 35:255–276.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Cox, W.J., Hahn, R.R., Stachowski, P.J. 2006. Time of weed removal with glyphosate affects corn growth and yield components. Agron. J. 98:349–353.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Doebley, J., Wendel, J.D., Smith, J.S.C., Stuber, C.W., Goodman, M.M. 1988. The origin of corn-belt maize: The isozyme evidence. Economic Bot. 42:120–131.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Dofing, S.M., Knight, C.W. 1992. Alternative model for path analysis of small-grain yield. Crop Sci. 32:487–489.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Evans, S., Knezevic, S., Lindquist, J., Shapiro, C., Blankenship, E.E. 2003. Nitrogen application influences the critical period for weed control in corn. Weed Sci. 51:408–417.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Hammer, G.L., Dong, Z., McLean, G., Doherty, A., Messina, C., Schussler, J., Zinselmeier, C., Paskiewicz, S., Cooper, M. 2009. Can changes in canopy and/or root system architecture explain historical maize yield trends in the U.S. Corn Belt? Crop Sci. 49:299–312.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Hashemi, A.M., Herbert, S.J., Putnam, D.H. 2005. Yield response of corn to crowding stress. Agron. J. 97:839–846.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Milander, J.J., Jukic, Z., Mason, S.C., Galusha, T., Kmail, Z. 2016. Plant population influence on maize yield components in Croatia and Nebraska. Crop Sci. 56:2742–2750.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Mohammadi, S.A., Prasanna, B.M., Singh, N.N. 2003. Sequential path model for determining interrelationships among grain yield and related characters in maize. Crop Sci. 43:1690–1697.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Novacek. M.J., Mason, S.C., Galusha, T.D., Yaseen, M. 2013. Twin rows minimally impact irrigated maize yield, morphology, and lodging. Agron. J. 105:268–276.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Novacek. M.J., Mason, S.C., Galusha, T.D., Yaseen, M. 2014. Bt transgenes minimally influence maize grain yields and lodging across plant populations. Maydica 59:90–95.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Reeves, G.W., Cox, W.J. 2013. Inconsistent responses of corn to seeding rates in field-scale studies. Agron. J. 105:693–704.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. SAS Institute. 2014. SAS/STAT 9.3 User’s Guide. SAS Inst., Cary, NC, USA.

  18. Svečnjak, Z., Varga, B., Butorac, J. 2006. Yield components of apical and subapical ear contributing to the grain yield responses of prolific maize at high and low plant populations. J. of Agron. and Crop Sci. 192:37–42.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Westgate, M.E., Otegui, M.E., Andrade, F.H. 2004. Physiology of the corn plant. In: Smith, C.W., Betrán, J., Runge, E.C.A. (eds), Corn: Origin, History, Technology, and Production. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Hoboken, NJ, USA. pp. 235–273.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to S. Mason.

Additional information

Communicated by T. Harangozó

Electronic supplementary material

Rights and permissions

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Milander, J., Jukić, Ž., Mason, S. et al. Hybrid Maturity Influence on Maize Yield and Yield Component Response to Plant Population in Croatia and Nebraska. CEREAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS 45, 326–335 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1556/0806.45.2017.015

Download citation

Keywords

  • maize
  • yield
  • yield components
  • path analysis