Cereal Research Communications

, Volume 44, Issue 3, pp 472–480 | Cite as

Heritability and Expression of Selected Mixograph Parameters in Progeny of Parents Varying for Mixing Time

  • F. S. Pelser
  • M. T. LabuschagneEmail author
  • B. Wentzel
  • A. van Biljon
Quality and Utilization


The mixograph performs certain rheological measurements during dough mixing and is a good predictor of wheat end-use quality. The aim of this study was to determine the expression and the heritability of mixing characteristics measured with Mixsmart® software and some quality characteristics in hard red spring wheat parents and their F1 progeny. Six parents varying in midline peak time and envelope peak time were crossed in a half diallel design. Parents and progeny were planted in three different environments. General combining ability (GCA) was a significant source of variation for the measured characteristics, and parents differed widely in terms of GCA effects. Midline-development time, -peak integral and -peak time showed high narrow sense heritability. Envelope peak-integral and -tail width displayed high narrow sense heritability for some, but not all locations. High GCA:SCA (specific combining ability) ratios indicated the prevalence of additive gene effects for midline-development time, -peak integral and -peak time, indicating that these characteristics are largely genetically determined, and that selection for them should lead to genetic gain.


diallel inheritance Mixsmart wheat quality 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



This work was funded in part by the National Research Foundation of South Africa (UID72056).

Supplementary material

42976_2016_4403472_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (191 kb)
Heritability and Expression of Selected Mixograph Parameters in Progeny of Parents Varying for Mixing Time


  1. Agronomix Software, Inc. 2014. AGROBASE Generation II User’s Manual. Version II, Revised Edition. Agronomix Software. Winnipeg, MB, Canada.Google Scholar
  2. Ahmed, Z., Singh, K.N., Srivastava, V.K. 1991. Grain quality characters in wheat. Indian J. of Genet. 51:84–89.Google Scholar
  3. American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC) 2000. Approved methods of the AACC, 10th edition. American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc. St. Paul, Minnesota, USA.Google Scholar
  4. Barnard, A.D., Labuschagne, M.T., van Niekerk, H.A. 2002. Heritability estimates of bread wheat quality traits in the Western Cape province of South Africa. Euphytica 127:115–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bergman, C.J., Gualberto, D.G., Campbell, K.G., Sorrells, M.E., Finney, P.L. 1998. Genotype and environment effects on wheat quality traits in a population derived from a soft by hard cross. Cereal Chem. 75:729–737.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bordes, J., Branlard, G., Oury, F.X., Charmet, G., Balfourier, F. 2008. Agronomic characteristics, grain quality and flour rheology of 372 bread wheats in a worldwide core collection. J. Cereal Sci. 48:569–579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dabholkar, A.R. 1999. Elements of Biometrical Genetics. Concept Publishing Company. New Delhi, India.Google Scholar
  8. Finney, K.F., Yamazaki, W.T., Youngs, V.L., Rubenthaler, G.L. 1987. Quality of hard, soft and durum wheats. In: Heyne, E.G. (ed.), Wheat and Wheat Improvement, 2nd ed. Am. Soc. of Agron., Inc., Crop Sci. Soc. of Am., Inc, Soil Sci. Soc. of Am., Inc. USA. pp. 677–748.Google Scholar
  9. Gowda, M., Longin, C.F.H., Lein, V., Reif, J.C. 2012. Relevance of specific versus general combining ability in winter wheat. Crop Sci. 52:2494–2500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gras, P.W., O’Brien, L. 1992. Application of a 2-gram mixograph to early generation selection for dough strength. Cereal Chem. 69:254–257.Google Scholar
  11. Labuschagne, M.T., Elago, O., Koen, E. 2009. The influence of temperature extremes on some quality and starch characteristics in bread, biscuit and durum wheat. J. Cereal Sci. 49:184–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Li, Y., Wu, Y., Hernandez-Espinosa, N., Pena, R.J. 2013. The influence of drought and heat stress on the expression of end-use quality parameters of common wheat. J. Cereal Sci. 57:73–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Longin, C.F.H., Maurer, H.P., Melchinger, A.E., Frisch, M. 2009. Optimum allocation of test resources and relative efficiency of alternative procedures of within-family selection in hybrid breeding. Plant Breeding 128:213–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Mao, X., Li, Y., Zhao, S., Zhang, J., Lei, Q., Meng, D., Ma, F., Hu, W., Chen, M., Chang, J., Wang, Y., Yang, G., He, G. 2013. The interactive effects of transgenetically overexpressed 1Ax1 with various HMW-GS combinations on dough quality by introgression of exogenous subunits into an elite Chinese wheat variety. PLoS ONE 8:1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Miles, C.W., van Biljon, A., Otto, W.M., Labuschagne, M.T. 2013. Grain and milling characteristics and their relationship with selected mixogram parameters in hard red bread wheat. J. Cereal Sci. 57:56–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Miles, C.W., van Biljon, A., Otto, W.M., Labuschagne, M.T. 2014. The relationship between selected mixogram parameters and rheological and baking characteristics in hard red bread wheat grown in South Africa. J. Cereal Sci. 59:219–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Morojele, M.E., Labuschagne, M.T. 2013. Estimates of genetic parameters for quality of wheat cultivars grown in Lesotho. African Crop Sci. J. 21:191–199.Google Scholar
  18. Neacşu, A., Stanciu, G., Sãulescu, N.N. 2009. Most suitable mixing parameters for use in breeding bread wheat for processing quality. Cereal Res. Commun. 37:83–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Pon, C.R., Lukow, O.M., Buckley, D.J. 1989. A multichannel, computer-based system for analysing dough rheology. J. of Texture Studies 19:343–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. SAGL (South African Grain Laboratory) 2013. Analysis procedure and evaluation norms for the classification of wheat breeders’ lines for the RSA, as revised by: Sensako, Pannar, ARC-SGI, SA Chamber of Baking, National Chamber of Milling, Grain SA and SAGL.Google Scholar
  21. Walker, A.E., Walker, C.E. 1992. Documentation and user’s instructions for Mixsmart. National Manufacturing Division, TMCO. 507 J. Street, Lincoln, NE68508, USA.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest 2016

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. S. Pelser
    • 1
  • M. T. Labuschagne
    • 1
    Email author
  • B. Wentzel
    • 1
  • A. van Biljon
    • 1
  1. 1.University of the Free State Faculty of Health Sciences BloemfonteinSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations