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Cereal Research Communications

, Volume 44, Issue 1, pp 98–110 | Cite as

Phytochemical Profiles and Antioxidant Capacity of Pigmented and Non-pigmented Genotypes of Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

  • M. N. IrakliEmail author
  • V. F. Samanidou
  • D. N. Katsantonis
  • C. G. Biliaderis
  • I. N. Papadoyannis
Physiology

Abstract

Pigmented rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes become increasingly important in the agro-industry due to their bioavailable compounds that have the ability to inhibit the formation and/or to reduce the effective concentration of reactive cell-damaging free radicals. This study aimed at determining the concentrations of free, and bound phytochemicals and their antioxidant potential (DPPH and ABTS assays) as well as the vitamin E and carotenoids contents of non-pigmented and pigmented rice genotypes. The results confirmed that the content of total phenolics and flavonoids contents, as well as the antioxidant capacity (DPPH and ABTS assays) of pigmented rice was several-fold greater than non-pigmented ones (4, 4, 3 and 5 times, respectively). Compounds in the free fraction of pigmented rice had higher antioxidant capacity relative to those in the bound form, whereas the non-pigmented rice cultivars exhibited the opposite trend. Ferulic acid was the main phenolic acid of all rice genotypes, whereas black rice contained protocatechuic and vanillic acids in higher contents than red rice and non-pigmented rice genotypes. For vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols) and carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene) contents, no obvious concentration differences were observed between non-pigmented and pigmented rice, with the black rice exhibiting the highest carotenoid content. Overall, pigmented rice genotypes contain a remarkable amount of bioactive compounds with high antioxidant capacity; therefore, they have great potential as a source of bioactives for developing functional food products with improved health benefits.

Keywords

red rice black rice vitamin E carotenoids phenolic acids 

Abbreviations

PR

pigmented rice genotypes

nPR

non-pigmented rice genotypes

OLY

Olympiada

ALE

Alexandros

FID

Fidgi

DEL

Dellrose

GLA

Gladio

FRA

Fragrance

DIM

Dimitra

ROX

Roxani

EUR

Europe

AXI

Axios

SEL

Selenio

CIG

Cigalon

ESC

Escarlate

CAM

Campno

BLA

Black Rice

Ts

tocopherols

T3s

tocotrienols

PC

phenolic content

FC

flavonoid content

FA

ferulic acid

pCA

p-coumaric acid

GA

gallic acid

SA

sinapic acid

PRCA

protocatechuic acid

4HBA

4-hydroxy-benzoic acid

VA

vanillic acid

SRA

syringic acid

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Phytochemical Profiles and Antioxidant Capacity of Pigmented and Non-pigmented Genotypes of Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

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© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest 2016

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. N. Irakli
    • 1
    Email author
  • V. F. Samanidou
    • 2
  • D. N. Katsantonis
    • 1
  • C. G. Biliaderis
    • 3
  • I. N. Papadoyannis
    • 2
  1. 1.Hellenic Agricultural Organization — Demeter, Cereal InstituteThessalonikiGreece
  2. 2.Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of ChemistryAUTHThessalonikiGreece
  3. 3.Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Biochemistry, School of AgricultureAUTHThessalonikiGreece

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