Cereal Research Communications

, Volume 44, Issue 1, pp 98–110 | Cite as

Phytochemical Profiles and Antioxidant Capacity of Pigmented and Non-pigmented Genotypes of Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

  • M. N. IrakliEmail author
  • V. F. Samanidou
  • D. N. Katsantonis
  • C. G. Biliaderis
  • I. N. Papadoyannis


Pigmented rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes become increasingly important in the agro-industry due to their bioavailable compounds that have the ability to inhibit the formation and/or to reduce the effective concentration of reactive cell-damaging free radicals. This study aimed at determining the concentrations of free, and bound phytochemicals and their antioxidant potential (DPPH and ABTS assays) as well as the vitamin E and carotenoids contents of non-pigmented and pigmented rice genotypes. The results confirmed that the content of total phenolics and flavonoids contents, as well as the antioxidant capacity (DPPH and ABTS assays) of pigmented rice was several-fold greater than non-pigmented ones (4, 4, 3 and 5 times, respectively). Compounds in the free fraction of pigmented rice had higher antioxidant capacity relative to those in the bound form, whereas the non-pigmented rice cultivars exhibited the opposite trend. Ferulic acid was the main phenolic acid of all rice genotypes, whereas black rice contained protocatechuic and vanillic acids in higher contents than red rice and non-pigmented rice genotypes. For vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols) and carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene) contents, no obvious concentration differences were observed between non-pigmented and pigmented rice, with the black rice exhibiting the highest carotenoid content. Overall, pigmented rice genotypes contain a remarkable amount of bioactive compounds with high antioxidant capacity; therefore, they have great potential as a source of bioactives for developing functional food products with improved health benefits.


red rice black rice vitamin E carotenoids phenolic acids 



pigmented rice genotypes


non-pigmented rice genotypes






























Black Rice






phenolic content


flavonoid content


ferulic acid


p-coumaric acid


gallic acid


sinapic acid


protocatechuic acid


4-hydroxy-benzoic acid


vanillic acid


syringic acid


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Supplementary material

42976_2016_4401098_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (651 kb)
Phytochemical Profiles and Antioxidant Capacity of Pigmented and Non-pigmented Genotypes of Rice (Oryza sativa L.)


  1. Adom, K.K., Liu, R.H. 2002. Antioxidant activity of grains. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50:6182–6187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bao, J.S., Cai, Y., Sun, M., Wang, G. Y., Corke, H. 2005. Anthocyanins, flavonols, and free radical scavenging activity of Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra) extracts and their color properties and stability. J. Agric. Food Chem. 53:2327–2332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chaudhary, R.C. 2003. Speciality rices of the world: Effect of WTO and IPR on its production trend and marketing. J. Food Agric. Envir. 1:34–41.Google Scholar
  4. De Mira, N.V.M., Massaretto, I.L., Pascual, C.D.S.C.I., Lanfer Marquez, U.M. 2009. Comparative study of phenolic compounds in different Brazilian rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes. J. Food Comp. Anal. 22:405–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Finochiaro, F., Ferrari, B., Gianinetti, A., Dall’Asta, C., Galaverna, G., Scazzina, F., Pellegrini, N. 2007. Characterization of antioxidant compounds of red and white rice and changes in total antioxidant capacity during processing. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 51:1006–1019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Floegel, A., Kim, D.O, Chung, S.J, Koo, S.I., Chun, O.K. 2011. Comparison of ABTS/DPPH assays to measure antioxidant capacity in popular antioxidant-rich US foods. J. Food Comp. Anal. 24:1043–1048.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Frei, M., Becker, K. 2005. Fatty acids and all-trans-β-carotene are correlated in differently colored rice landraces. J. Sci. Food Agric. 85:2380–2384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Friedman, M. 1996. The nutritional value of proteins from different food sources. J. Agric. Food Chem. 43:3–29.Google Scholar
  9. Goffman, F., Bergman, C.J. 2004. Rice kernel phenolic content and its relationship with antiradical efficiency. J. Sci. Food Agric. 84:1235–1240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Huang, S.H., Ng, L.T. 2011. Quantification of tocopherols, tocotrienols, and γ-oryzanol contents and their distribution in some commercial rice varieties in Taiwan. J. Agric. Food Chem. 59:11150–11159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Irakli, M.N., Samanidou, V.F., Biliaderis, C.G., Papadoyannis, I.N. 2012. Development and validation of an HPLC-method for determination of free and bound phenolic acids in cereals after solid-phase extraction. Food Chem. 134:1624–1632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Irakli, M.N., Samanidou, V.F., Papadoyannis, I.N. 2011. Development and validation of an HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of tocopherols, tocotrienols and carotenoids in cereals after solid-phase extraction. J. Sep. Sci. 34:1375–1382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kim, J.K., Lee, S.Y., Chu, S.M., Lim, S.H., Suh, S.C., Lee, Y.T., Cho, H.S., Ha, S.H. 2010. Variation and correlation analysis of flavonoids and carotenoids in Korean PR (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars. J. Agric. Food Chem. 58:1280–12809.Google Scholar
  14. Lamberts, L., Delcour, A.D. 2008. Carotenoids in raw and parboiled brown and milled rice. J. Agric. Food Chem. 56:11914–11919.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lai, P., Li, K.Y., Lu, S., Chen, H.H. 2009. Phytochemicals and antioxidant properties of solvent extracts from Japonica rice bran. Food Chem. 117:538–544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Laokuldilok, T., Shoemake, C.F., Jomgkaewwattana, S. 2011. Antioxidants and antioxidant activity of several pigmented rice brans. J. Agric. Food Chem. 59:193–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Liu, R.H. 2004. Potential synergy of phytochemicals in cancer prevention: mechanism of action. J. Nutr. 134:3479S–3485S.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Min, B., McClung, A.M., Chen, M-H. 2011. Phytochemicals and antioxidant capacities in rice brans of different color. J. Food Sci. 76:117–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Niu, Y., Gao, B., Slavin, M., Zhang, X., Yang, F., Bao, J., Shi, H., Xie, Z., Yu, L. 2013. Phytochemical compositions, and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of twenty-two red rice samples grown in Zhejiang. LWT – Food Sci. Technol. 54:5215–5227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Paiva, F.F., Vanier, N.L., Berrios, J.J., Pan, J., Villanova, F.A., Takeoka, G., Elias, M.C. 2014. Physicochemical and nutritional properties of pigmented rice subjected to different degrees of milling. J. Food Comp. Anal. 35:10–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Re, R., Pellergini, N., Proteggente, A., Pannala, A., Yang, M., Rice-Evans C.A. 1999. Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Rad. Biol. Med. 26:1231–1237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Saikia, S., Dutta, H., Saikia, D., Mahanta, C.L. 2012. Quality characterization and estimation of phytochemicals content and antioxidant capacity of aromatic pigmented and non-pigmented rice varieties. Food Res. Int. 46:334–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Shen, Y., Jin, L., Xiao, P., Lu, Y., Bao, J. 2009. Total phenolics, flavonoids, antioxidant capacity in rice grain and their relations to grain color, size and weight. J. Cereal Sci. 49:106–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Singleton, V.L., Orthofer, R., Lamuela-Raventos, R.M. 1999. Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin-Ciocalteu reagents. Methods Enzym. 299:152–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Sompong, R., Siebenhandl-Ehn, S., Linsberger-Martin, G., Berghofer, E. 2011. Physicochemical and antioxidative properties of red and black rice varieties from Thailand, China and Sri Lanka. Food Chem. 124:132–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Tian, S., Nakamura, K., Kayara, H. 2004. Analysis of phenolic compounds in white rice, brown rice and germinated brown rice. J. Agric. Food Chem. 52:4808–4813.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Yao, Y., Sang, W., Zhou, M., Ren, G. 2010. Antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of colored grains in China. J. Agric. Food Chem. 58:770–774.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Yen, G.C., Chen, H.Y. 1995. Antioxidant activity of various tea extracts in relation to their antimutagenicity. J. Agric. Food Chem. 43:27–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest 2016

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. N. Irakli
    • 1
    Email author
  • V. F. Samanidou
    • 2
  • D. N. Katsantonis
    • 1
  • C. G. Biliaderis
    • 3
  • I. N. Papadoyannis
    • 2
  1. 1.Hellenic Agricultural Organization — Demeter, Cereal InstituteThessalonikiGreece
  2. 2.Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of ChemistryAUTHThessalonikiGreece
  3. 3.Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Biochemistry, School of AgricultureAUTHThessalonikiGreece

Personalised recommendations