Acta Biologica Hungarica

, Volume 69, Issue 4, pp 411–422 | Cite as

In vitro Pharmacological Effects of Astragalus eremophilus and Melilotus parviflora

  • Muhammad Nadeem Khan
  • Muhstaq Ahmed
  • Muhammad Wasim Khan
  • Rahmat Ali KhanEmail author


Traditional medicines are composed of herbal formulations and their active ingredients and constituents which play a crucial role in the treatment of various human ailments. Astragalus eremophilus and Melilotus indicus (L.) All. (syn. Melilotusparviflora Desf.) are used traditionally as antiperspirant, tonic, diuretic, laxative and narcotic agents. The current study was designed to investigate the Astragalus eremophilus and Melilotus indicus (L.) All. (syn. Melilotus parviflora Desf.) methanol extracts for their anti-oxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activities. Fine powder of A. eremophilus and M. parviflora was extracted with 70% methanol to get crude methanol extract. Extract was characterized for antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activities. Antioxidant activity of various concentrations (3 mg/ml, 1.5 mg/ ml, 0.75 mg/ml, and 0.38 mg/ml) of both plant extracts was analyzed using 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical. Salmonella typhemorium, Klebsiellapneumoniae (gram-negatie)andStaphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis (gram-positive) bacterial strains were used for assessment of antibacterial activities. Antifungal activities of 7.5 mg/ml, 5.0 mg/ml, 2.5 mg/ml (A. eremophilus and M. parviflora) were conducted using Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicons. At high concentration (3 mg/ml), all the tested fractions of A. eremophilus and M. parviflora methanol extracts showed potent antioxidant activities, ranging between 83.8 and 63.33%. Antibacterial activities revealed that A. eremophilus showed a maximum zone of inhibition (8.1 ±0.1) on Salmonella typheno-rium foliowed by Enterococcus faecalis (7.2 ± 0.1), Klebsellesa pneumonia (6.1 ± 0.6), and Staphylococcus aureus (5.1 ±0.4), and at highest concentration (7.5 mg/ml), however, maximum zone of inhibition of Melilotus parviflora was at 7.5 mg/ml foliowed by 5.0 mg/ml and 2.5 mg/ml against Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhemorium and Enterococcus faecalis. Antifungal assessment of both plant extracts showed that the higher concentration (7.5 mg/ml) has significant inhibitory effect as compared to control. The results can lead to the conclusion that A. eremophilus and M. parviflora methanol extracts are indeed sources of potential therapeutic compounds against antibacterial, antifungal and free radical associated disorders.


Astragalus eremophilus Melilotus parviflora antioxidant antibacterial antifungal activity 


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© Akadémiai Kiadó Zrt. 2018

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Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad Nadeem Khan
    • 1
  • Muhstaq Ahmed
    • 1
  • Muhammad Wasim Khan
    • 2
  • Rahmat Ali Khan
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of BiotechnologyUniversity of Science and Technology BannuKPKPakistan
  2. 2.Institute of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical SciencesShandong UniversityShandongChina

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