Heliotropium indicum L. belongs to the family Boraginaceae. The plant has been used as a folk medicine because it contains substances of various biological activities. It is also identified as a common weed which grows wildly in crop fields in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. However, there is little information on the allelopathic effect in this plant. Therefore, this study was undertaken to investigate the growth inhibitory effect and to identify the growth inhibitory substances in H. indicum. An aqueous methanol extract of H. indicum inhibited shoot and root growth of barnyard grass, foxtail fescue, timothy, cress, lettuce and rapeseed at concentrations higher than 10 mg dry weight equivalent extract/mL. The concentrations required for 50% growth inhibition (I50) of those test plants ranged from 3–282 mg dry weight equivalent extract/mL. The extract was then separated using a sequence of chromatographic fractionations and a growth inhibitory substance was isolated and identified by spectral analysis as methyl caffeate. Methyl caffeate inhibited the growth of lettuce and foxtail fescue at concentrations higher than 1.0 mM. The results suggest that methyl caffeate may contribute to the growth inhibitory effect of H. indicum and may play an important role in the allelopathic effect of H. indicum.
Abubakar, M. S., Musa, A. M., Ahmed, A., Hussaini, I. M. (2007) The perception and practice of traditional medicine in the treatment of cancers and inflammations by the Hausa and Fulani tribes of Northern Nigeria. J. Ethnopharmacol. 111, 625–629.
Abdulghader, K., Majid, N., Nabat, N. (2008) Chemical stress induced by Heliotrope (Heliotropium europaeum L.) allelochemicals and increased activity of antioxidant enzymes. Pak. J. Biol. Sci. 11, 915–919.
Afef, L., Omezzine, F., Haouala, R. (2014) The impact of tunisian capparidaceae species on cytological, physiological and biochemical mechanisms in lettuce. S. Afr. J. Bot. 93, 222–230.
Ali, K. A., Sakri, F. Q., Li, Q. X. (2012) Isolation and purification of allelochemicals from Cephalaria syriaca plant. Int. J. Bio. sci. 2, 90–103.
Arakawa, R., Yamaguchi, M. (2004) Product analysis of caffeic acid oxidation by on-line electrochemistry/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. J. Am. Soc. Mass. Spectrom. 15, 1228–1236.
Balachadran, C., Veeramuthu, D., Naif, A. A., Balakrishna, K., Nitin, P. K., Vikrant, S. R., Inshad, A. K., Savarimuthu, I. (2012) Antimicrobial and antimycrobacterial activities of methyl caffeate isolated from Solanum torvum Swartz. fruit. Indian J. Microbiol. 4, 676–681.
Balachadran, C., Emi, N., Arun, Y., Yamamoto, Y., Ahilan, B., Sangeetha, B., Duraipandiyan, V., Inaguma, Y., Okamoto, A., Ignacimuthu, S., Al-Dhadi, N. A., Perumal, P. T. (2015) In vitro anticancer activity of methyl caffeate isolated from Solanum torvum Swartz. fruit. Chem. Biol. Interact. 242, 81–90.
Bailly, F., Robert, A. T., Olympe, T., Nathalie, J., Hubert, H., Philippe, C. (2013) Antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of the oxidative dimerization product of methyl caffeate on human breast cancer cells. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 23, 574–578.
Das, S., Coku, A. (2014) Allelopathic and antimicrobial evaluation of two Indian weeds–Heliotropium indicum L. and Synedrella nodiflora L. Gaertn with phytochemical studies. Am. J. PharmTech R. 4, 367–377.
Dash, G. K., Abdulla, M. S. (2013) A review on Heliotropium indicum L. (Boraginaceae). Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Res. 4.4, 1253–1258.
Dayan, F. E., Howell, J., Weidenhamer, J. D. (2009) Dynamic root exudation of sorgoleon and its in planta mechanism of action. J. Exp. Bot. 60.7, 2107–2117.
Galinato, M. I., Moody, K., Piggin, C. M. (1999) Upland rice weeds of South and Southeast Asia. Philippines International Rice Research Institute, Makati, Philippines.
Gandhi, G. R., Savarimuthu, I., Michael, G. P., Ponnusamy, S. (2011) Antihyperglycemic activity and antidiabetic effect of methyl caffeate isolated from Solanum torvum Swartz. fruit in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 670, 623–631.
Ghori, K. M., Ghaffari, M. A., Hussain, S. N., Manzoor, M., Aziz, M., Sarwer, W. (2016) Ethnopharmacological, phytochemical and pharmacognostic potential of genus Heliotropium L. Turk. J. Pharm. Sci. 13, 259–280.
Inbaraj, J. J., Chignell, C. F. (2004) Cytotoxic action of juglone and plumbagin: a mechanistic study using HaCaT keratinocytes. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 17, 55–62.
Islam, M. S., Kato-Noguchi, H. (2016) Phytotoxicity assessment of Cyperus difformis (L.) towards a sustainable weed management option. J. Anim. Plant Sci. 26, 1765–1771.
Kadioglu, I., Yanar, Y. (2004) Allelopathic effects of plant extracts against seed germination of some weeds. Asian J. Plant Sci. 3, 472–475.
Kugelman, M., Liu, W. C., Axelrod, M., McBride, T. J., Rao, K. V. (1976) Indicine-N-oxide: the antitumor principle of Heliotropium indicum. Lloydia. 39, 125–128.
Lara-Nunez, A., Romero-Romero, T., Ventura, J. L., Blancas, V., Anaya, A. L., Cruz-Ortega, R. (2006) Allelochemical stress caused inhibition of growth and oxidative damages in Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. Plant, Cell and Environment 29, 2009–2016.
Lee, S. P., Jun, G., Yoon, E., Park, S., Yang, C. (2001) Inhibitory effect of methyl caffeate on Fos-Jun-DNA complex formation and suppression of cancer cell growth. Bull. Korean Chem. Soc., 22.10, 1131–1135.
Ma, L., Hongli, W., Ru, B., Li, Z., Xiaohong, Y., Dabin, H. (2011) Phytotoxic effects of Stellera chamaejasme L. root extract. Afr. J. Agric. Res. 6, 1170–1176.
Ma, D. W., Wang, Y. N., Wang, Y., Zhang, H., Liao, Y., He, H. (2015) Advance in allelochemical stress induced damage to plant cell. Acta Ecol. Sin. 35, 1640–1645.
Prevost, M. S., Delarue-Cochin, S., Marteaux, J., Colas, C., Van, R. C., Blondel, A., Malliavin, T., Corringer, P. J., Joseph, D. (2013) Identification of cinnamic acid derivatives as novel antagonist of the prokaryotic proton-gated ion channel GLIC. J. Med. Chem. 56, 4619–4630.
Pyo, M. K., Yong, Y. L., Hye, Y. C. (2002) Anti-platelet effect of the constituents isolated from the barks and fruits of Magnolia obovate. Arch. Pharm. Res. 25, 325–328.
Reddy, J. S, Rao, P. R., Reddy, M. S. (2002) Wound healing effects of Heliotropium indicum, Plumbago zeylanicum and Acalypha indica in rats. J. Ethnopharmacol. 79, 249–251.
Rice, E. L. (1984) Allelopathy, 2nd Ed. Academic Press, Orlando.
Suleiman, M. H. A., Banaga, F. A. (2016) Evaluation of allelopathic action of Adansonia digitate L. root extract on the germination and growth of lettuce, hibiscus and sorgum. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res. 37, 137–142.
Vilhena, K. S., Guilhon, G. M., Zoghbi, M. D., Santos, L. S., Souza Filho, A. P. (2014) Chemical investigation of Cyprus distans L. and inhibitory activity of scabequinone in seed germination and seedling growth bioassays. Nat. Prod. Res. 28.23, 2128–2133.
Wang, J., Jia, G., Junnan, Z., Jie, P., Tianxing, L., Zhihong, X. (2015) Isolation, identification and antioxidant activity of bound phenolic compounds present in rice bran. Food Chem. 171, 40–49.
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) The major arthropod pests and weeds of agriculture in southeast Asia: distribution, importance and origin. Brown Prior Anderson, Victoria, Australia.
Xiang, M., Hanwen, S., Jinyue, H., Yunjin, Y. (2011) Isolation, identification and determination of methyl caffeate, ethyl caffeate and other phenolic compounds from Polygonum amplexicaule var. sinense. J. Med. Plants Res. 5, 1685–1691.
Zhu, Y., Zhang, L. X., Zhao, Y., Huang, G. D. (2010) Unusual susquiterpene lactones with a new carbon skeleton and new acetylenes from Ajania przewalskii. Food Chem. 118, 228–238.
About this article
Cite this article
Chaipon, S., Suwitchayanon, P., Iwasaki, A. et al. Isolation and Identification of a Growth Inhibitory Substance from Heliotropium indicum L.. BIOLOGIA FUTURA 69, 259–269 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1556/018.68.2018.3.3
- Growth inhibitory effect
- Heliotropium indicum
- aqueous methanol extract
- methyl caffeate
- growth inhibitory substance