Acta Biologica Hungarica

, Volume 67, Issue 4, pp 345–363 | Cite as

Anatomical and Physiological Background Permitting Spatial Odor Sensation in Stylommatophoran Molluscs

A Review
  • Tibor KissEmail author
  • Nóra Krajcs


Earlier experiments demonstrated that in order to place protracted tentacles and thereby olfactory receptors in an appropriate position for optimal perception of odor stimuli extraordinary complex movements are required. Until recently both large scale tentacle movements and patterned tentacle movements have been attributed to the concerted involvement of the tentacle retractor muscle and muscles of tegumentum. Recently the existence of three novel muscles in the posterior tentacles of Helix has been discovered. The present review, based on experimental data obtained by our research group, outlines the anatomy, physiology and pharmacology of these muscles that enable the tentacles to execute complex movements observed during foraging both in naïve and food-conditioned snails. Our findings are also compared as far as possible with earlier and recent data obtained on innervation characteristics and pharmacology of molluscan muscles.


Gastropoda– tentacles– flexor muscles– neurotransmitters– modulators– olfaction 


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Experimental Zoology, Balaton Limnological InstituteMTA Centre for Ecological ResearchTihanyHungary

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