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Acta Biologica Hungarica

, Volume 66, Issue 3, pp 326–338 | Cite as

Regulation of Unbalanced Redox Homeostasis Induced by the Expression of Wild-Type HIV-1 Viral Protein R (NL4-3Vpr) in Fission Yeast

  • Zoltán Gazdag
  • Timea Stromájer-rácz
  • Joseph Belagyi
  • Richard Y. Zhao
  • Robert T. Elder
  • Eszter VirágEmail author
  • Miklós Pesti
Article

Abstract

The wild-type viral protein R (Vpr) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 exerts multiple effects on cellular activities during infection, including the induction of cell cycle G2 arrest and the death of human cells and cells of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In this study, wild-type Vpr (NL4-3Vpr) integrated as a single copy gene in S. pombe chromosome was used to investigate the molecular impact of Vpr on cellular oxidative stress. NL4-3Vpr triggered an atypical response in early (14-h), and a wellregulated oxidative stress response in late (35-h) log-phase cultures. Specifically, NL4-3Vpr expression induced oxidative stress in the 14-h cultures leading, to decreased levels of superoxide anion (O2·), hydroxyl radical (·OH) and glutathione (GSH), and significantly decreased activities of catalase, glu-tathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutathione S-transferase. In the 35-h cultures, elevated levels of O2· and peroxides were accompanied by increased activities of most antioxidant enzymes, suggesting that the Vpr-induced unbalanced redox state of the cells might contribute to the adverse effects in HIV-infected patients.

Keywords

HIV-1 Vpr oxidative stress fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe 

Abbreviations

CAT

catalase

DHR 123

dihydrorhodamine 123

EPR

electron paramagnetic resonance

ET

ethidium bromide

GPx

glutathione peroxidase

GR

gluthathione reductase

GSH

glu-tathione

GSSG

glutathione disulfde

GST

gluthatione S-transferase

G6PD

glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

HIV-1 Vpr

human immunodefciency virus type-1 viral protein R

NL4-3Vpr

wild-type Vpr

PBN

N-tert-butyl-α-phenylnitrone

ROS

reactive oxygen species

S. pombe

Schizosaccharomyces pombe

SOD

superoxide dismutase

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© Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest 2015

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zoltán Gazdag
    • 1
  • Timea Stromájer-rácz
    • 1
  • Joseph Belagyi
    • 2
  • Richard Y. Zhao
    • 3
  • Robert T. Elder
    • 3
  • Eszter Virág
    • 1
    Email author
  • Miklós Pesti
    • 1
  1. 1.University of PécsPécsHungary
  2. 2.Institute of Biophysics, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of PécsPécsHungary
  3. 3.Department of Pathology, Department of Microbiology-Immunology, Institute of Human VirologyUniversity of Maryland School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA

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