This study was designed to determine the optimal high dose for cytosine arabinoside (ara-C) in combination with fludarabine, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and mitoxantrone (FLAGM) in adult patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia. Nine patients were enrolled at increasing dosage levels of ara-C (8,12, and 16 g/m2 per dose level). Ara-C and fludarabine were administered once a day at level 1, once or twice a day at level 2, and twice a day at level 3. All patients had grade 4 hematologic toxicity.The most common adverse events were of grade 2 or less, with nausea and vomiting being the most common (6 events), followed by diarrhea (5 events), and rash (5 events). Of the 13 grade 3 nonhematologic toxicities reported, the 2 most common were febrile neutropenia (6 events) and disseminated intravascular coagulation (3 events). No early deaths were observed. FLAGM with high-dose ara-C was considered safe for patients, and the recommended dosage of ara-C in this study was 2 g/m2 every 12 hours for a total dose of 16 g/m2.
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Miyawaki, S., Kawai, Y., Takeshita, A. et al. Phase I Trial of FLAGM with High Doses of Cytosine Arabinoside for Relapsed, Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Study of the Japan Adult Leukemia Study Group (JALSG). Int J Hematol 86, 343–347 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1532/IJH97.07072
- FLAGM therapy
- High-dose ara-C
- Phase I study