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International Journal of Hematology

, Volume 83, Issue 1, pp 17–22 | Cite as

Roles of OX40 in the Pathogenesis and the Control of Diseases

Article

Abstract

OX40 belongs to the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, and its expression is restricted to activated T-cells. Ligation of OX40 during T-cell-dendritic cell interaction is crucial for clonal expansion of antigen-specific T-cells and generation of T-cell memory. The ligand of OX40 (OX40L) is expressed not only on dendritic cells but also on other cell types, such as B-cells, vascular endothelial cells, natural killer cells, and mast cells. The pathophysiological relevance of this broad distribution needs further investigation. In particular, OX40L on vascular endothelial cells may play a role in inflammatory vasculitis as well as in atherosclerotic change. Recent studies with animal models have indicated the critical involvement of OX40 in the pathogenesis of a variety of immunologic abnormalities of inflammatory, autoimmune, infectious, allergic, and allotransplantation-Related diseases. Blockade of OX40-OX40L interaction has been shown to prevent, cure, or ameliorate these diseases. In contrast, activation of OX40 is known to break an existing state of tolerance in malignancies, leading to a reactivation of antitumor immunity. These findings clearly suggest that the OX40/OX40L system is one of the most promising targets of immune intervention for treatment of these diseases.

Key words

OX40 OX40L T-cell Costimulation Immune intervention 

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Copyright information

© The Japanese Society of Hematology 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Hematology and OncologyGraduate School of Medicine, Kyoto UniversitySakyokuJapan

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