Significance of Decreased Plasma D-Dimer Levels following Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation in Rats
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Plasma D-dimer (DD) is considered to be one of the most useful markers in the diagnosis and assessment of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). The present study was performed to clarify the role of DD in a rat model of lipopolysac-charide (LPS)-induced DIC in which low—molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) and tranexamic acid (TA) were used. We investigated whether a relationship exists between plasma DD levels and severity of DIC. Experimental DIC was induced in rats by a sustained 4-hour infusion of 30 mg/kg LPS administered via the tail vein (LPS group). Rats received either LPS alone (LPS group) or LPS combined with 200 U/kg LMWH (LPS+LMWH group) or 50 mg/kg TA (LPS+TA group) from-30 minutes to 4 hours. Blood was drawn from each rat at 4, 8, and 12 hours. Plasma levels of thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT) and creatinine were suppressed in the LPS+LMWH group, and less glomerular fibrin deposition was observed compared with the LPS group. On the other hand, an increased level of creatinine and increased glomerular fibrin deposition were observed in the LPS+TA group compared with the LPS group. LMWH demonstrated a protective effect against LPS-induced DIC, resulting in increased survival at 12 hours, whereas TA had the opposite effect. From these results, it appears that LMWH protects against LPS-induced DIC, but TA exacerbates LPS-induced DIC. It was interesting that plasma levels of DD were almost completely suppressed by concurrent administration of either TA or LMWH in this LPS-induced DIC model. This finding suggested that plasma levels of DD were suppressed by inhibition of coagulation (reduced deposition of fibrin) in the LPS+LMWH group and that DD levels were also suppressed by inhibition of fibrinolysis (reduced degradation of fibrin by plasmin) in the LPS+TA group. Thus care should be taken when evaluating the significance of plasma DD levels, because suppressed levels can occur with progressive fibrin deposition and worsening organ dysfunction or improvement in the course of DIC.
Key wordsDIC Lipopolysaccharide D-dimer Tranexamic acid Low-molecular-weight heparin
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