Marriage amendments and lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals in the 2006 election

  • Ellen D. B. Riggle
  • Sharon S. Rostosky
  • Sharon G. Horne
Same-Sex Marriage Supplement


More than half of U.S. states have passed amendments to their constitutions excluding same-sex couples from civil marriage. The impact of these ballot initiatives and debates on lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals has been underresearched. Extending research on racial and ethnic minority groups, as well as research on LGB groups, the study discussed in this article hypothesized that LGB individuals would encounter more negative messages, be at risk for negative psychological effects, and increase their political activities, including voting, during elections with marriage amendments on the ballot. A national cross-sectional online survey of 1,824 LGB participants conducted postelection in November 2006 confirmed these hypotheses.

Key words

depression media minority stress voting behavior LGB 


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Copyright information

© Springer 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ellen D. B. Riggle
    • 1
  • Sharon S. Rostosky
    • 2
  • Sharon G. Horne
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Political ScienceUniversity of KentuckyLexington
  2. 2.Department of Educational and Counseling PsychologyUniversity of KentuckyLexington
  3. 3.Department of Counseling, Educational Psychology and ResearchUniversity of MemphisMemphis

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