Sexuality Research & Social Policy

, Volume 3, Issue 2, pp 1–23 | Cite as

Social support in the lives of lesbians and gay men at midlife and later

  • Judith C. Barker
  • Gilbert Herdt
  • Brian de Vries


A large body of medical and academic literature has established the connection between strong social support and vigorous physical and mental health in aging populations. Largely unexamined to date, however, are the meanings and processes through which lesbians and gay men come to perceive, develop, maintain, and mobilize social support in midlife and later. The midlife cohort currently in this population stands to be the first group of homosexuals who will openly disclose their sexual orientation and their social support needs when they reach later life. Focusing on social support and informal caregiving for aging lesbians and gay men, we look at how the lifelong impact of the social, political, and economic stigma and discrimination, and related historical events, created significant cohort differences. This approach offers insight into similar processes occurring in other groups, such as ethnic minorities, and has implications for gerontological theory, policy, and research in general.

Key words

aging cohort caregiving sexual minority stigma discrimination LCBTQQ 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adams, R. G., Blieszner, R., & de Vries, B. (2000). Definitions of friendship in the third age: Age, gender, and study location effects. Journal of Aging Studies, 14, 117–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adelman, M. (Ed.). (1987). Long time passing: Lives of older lesbians. Boston: Alyson Publications.Google Scholar
  3. Adelman, M. (Ed.). (2000). Midlife lesbian relationships: Friends, lovers, children and parents. Binghamton, NY: Harrington Park Press.Google Scholar
  4. Adelman, M., Gurevitch, J., de Vries, B., & Blando, J. (2006). Openhouse: Community building and research in the LGBT aging population. In D. Kimmel & S. David (Eds.), Research and clinical perspectives on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender aging (pp. 247–264). New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Allan, G. A., & Adams, R. G. (1989). Aging and the structure of friendship. In R. G. Adams & R. Blieszner (Eds.), Older adult friendship: Structure and process (pp. 45–64). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  6. Allen, K. R., & Demo, D. H. (1995). The families of lesbians and gay men: A new frontier in family research. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 57, 111–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. American Association of Retired People. (2004, June). Reinventing aging: Baby boomers and civic engagement. Retrieved July 26, 2004, from the Harvard School of Public Health website: http://research. Scholar
  8. Aneshensel, C. J., Pearling, L. I., Mullan, J. T., Zarit, S. H., & Whitlatch, C. J. (1995). Profiles in caregiving: The unexpected career. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  9. Antonucci, T. C., & Akiyama, H. (1987). Social networks in adult life and a preliminary examination of the convoy model. Journal of Gerontology, 42, 519–527.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Aries, E. J., & Johnson, F. L. (1983). Close friendship in adulthood: Conversational content between same-sex friends. Sex Roles, 9, 1183–1196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Baltes, P. B., & Baltes, M. M. (1990) Successful aging: Perspectives from the behavioral sciences. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Barker, J. C. (2002). Neighbors, friends and other non-kin caregivers of community-living dependent elders. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 57, 158–167.Google Scholar
  13. Barker, J. C. (2004). Lesbian aging: An agenda for social research. In G. Herdt & B. de Vries (Eds.), Gay and lesbian aging: Research and future directions (pp. 29–72). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  14. Baumeister, R., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 11, 497–529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Beeler, J. A., Rawls, T. D., Herdt, G., & Cohler, B. J. (1999). The needs of older lesbians and gay men in Chicago. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Social Services, 9, 31–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Berger, R. M. (1982). Gay and gray: The older homosexual man. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  17. Berkman, L. F. (1984). Assessing the physical health effects of social networks and social support. Annual Review of Public Health, 5, 413–432.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Berkman, L. F. (1985). The relationship of social networks and social supports to morbidity and mortality. In S. Cohen & S. L. Syme (Eds.), Social support and health (pp. 241–262). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  19. Bernstein, M. (2001). Gender, family policies and the limits of law. In M. Bernstein & R. Reinvann (Eds.), Queer families, queer politics: Challenging culture and the state (pp. 420–446). New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Binstock, R. H. (2000). Older people and voting behavior: Past and future. The Gerontologist, 40, 18–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Bisconti, T. L., & Bergeman, C. S. (1999). Perceived social control as a mediator of the relationships among social support, psychological well-being, and perceived health. The Gerontologist, 39, 94–103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Blazer, D. G. (1982). The epidemiology of late life depression. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 30, 587–592.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Boxer, A. M., & Cohler, B. (1989). The life course of gay and lesbian youth: An immodest proposal for the study of lives. In G. Herdt (Ed.), Gay and lesbian youth (pp. 315–355). New York: Harrington Park Press.Google Scholar
  24. Boyd, N. A. (2003). Wide-open town: A history of queer San Francisco to 1965. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  25. Brody, E. M. (1986). Filial care of the elderly and changing roles of women (and men). Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 19, 175–201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Brown, M. P. (1997). Replacing citizenship: AIDS and radical activism. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  27. Burrington, D. (1998). The public square and citizen queer: Toward a new political geography. Polity, 31, 107–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cahill, S., South, K., & Spade, J. (2000). Outing age: Public policy issues affecting gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender elders. Washington, DC: Policy Institute, National Gay and Lesbian Task Force.Google Scholar
  29. Cancian, F. M., & Oliker, S. J. (2000). Caring and gender. Walnut Creek, CA: Rowan and Littlefield.Google Scholar
  30. Carrington, C. (1999). No place like home. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  31. Carstensen, L. L. (1995). Evidence for a life-span theory of socioemotional selectivity. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 4, 151–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Chauncey, G. (1994). Gay New York. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  33. Cohen, D., & Eisdorfer, C. (1995). Caring for your aging parents: A planning and action guide. New York: Penguin Putnam.Google Scholar
  34. Cohen, S., & Syme, S. L. (1985). Social support and health. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  35. Cohen, S., & Wills, T. A. (1985). Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis. Psychological Bulletin, 98, 310–357.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Cohler, B., & Galatzer-Levy, R. M. (2000). The course of gay and lesbian lives. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  37. Cohler, B., Hostetler, A., & Boxer, A. (1998). Generativity, social context and lived experience: Narratives of gay men in middle adulthood. In D. McAdams & E. de St. Aubin (Eds.), Generativity and adult experience: Psychosocial perspectives on caring and contributing to the next generation (pp. 265–309). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Press.Google Scholar
  38. Coontz, S. (1992). The way we never were: American families and the nostalgia trap. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  39. Coontz, S., Parson, M., & Raley, G. (Eds.). (1999). American families: A multicultural reader. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  40. Crohan, S. E., & Antonucci, T. C. (1989). Friends as a source of social support in old age. In R. G. Adams & R. Blieszner (Eds.), Older adult friendship: Structure and process (pp. 129–146). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  41. Croog, S. H., Lipson, A., & Levine, S. (1972). Help patterns in severe illness: The roles of kin network, non-family resources, and institutions. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 34, 32–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Davis, K. E., & Todd, M. J. (1985). Assessing friendship: Prototypes, paradigm cases, and relationship description. In S. Duck & D. Perlman (Eds.), Understanding personal relationships: An interdisciplinary approach (pp. 17–38). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  43. D’Emilio, J. (1983). Sexual identities, sexual communities. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  44. D’Emilio, J., & Freedman E. (1988). Intimate matters. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  45. Depner, C. E., & Ingersoll-Dayton, B. (1988). Supportive relationships in later life. Psychology and Aging, 3, 348–357.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. de Vries, B. (1991). Family and kinship patterns over the life course: A family stage perspective. In L. Stone (Ed.), Caring communities: Proceedings of the symposium on social support (pp. 99–107). Ottawa, Canada: Industry, Science, and Technology.Google Scholar
  47. de Vries, B. (1996). The understanding of friendship: An adult life course perspective. In C. Magai & S. McFadden (Eds.), Handbook of emotion, aging, and the life course (pp. 249–268). New York: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. de Vries, B., & Blando, J. (2004). The study of gay and lesbian aging: Lessons for social gerontology. In G. Herdt & B. de Vries (Eds.), Gay and lesbian aging (pp. 3–28). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  49. de Vries, B., Blando, J. A., Southard, P., & Bubeck, C. (2001). The times of our lives. In G. Kenyon, P. Clark, & B. de Vries (Eds.), Narrative gerontology: Theory, research, and practice (pp. 137–158). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  50. de Vries, B., & Hoctel, P. (in press). The family friends of older gay men and lesbians. In N. Teunis & G. Herdt (Eds.), Sexual inequalities: Case studies from the field. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  51. de Vries, B., & Watt, D. (1998). The network locations of friends and family: Evidence of subjective appraisal. In C. L. Johnson (Chair), Self-reported qualities of family relationships. Symposium conducted at the annual meeting of the Gerontologieal Society of America, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  52. Diaz, R. M. (1998). Latino gay men and HIV. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  53. Diaz, R. M., Ayala, G., Bein, E., Henne, J., & Marin, B. V. (2001). The impact of homophobia, poverty and racism on the mental health of gay and bisexual Latino men: Findings from 3 U.S. cities. American Journal of Public Health, 91, 927–932.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Dorfman, R., Walters, K., Burke, P., Hardin, L., Karanik, T., Raphael, J., et al. (1995). Old, sad and alone: The myth of the aging homosexual. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 24, 29–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Elder, G. (1974). Children of the Great Depression. New York: Harper Collins.Google Scholar
  56. Eliason, M. J. (1996). Who cares? Institutional barriers to health care for lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons (No. 14-6762). New York: National League for Nursing Press.Google Scholar
  57. Epstein, S. (2003). Sexualizing governance and medicalizing identities: The emergence of “state centered” LGBT health politics in the United States. Sexualities, 6, 131–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Faderman, L. (1999). To believe in women. New York: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  59. Farmer, P. (1999). Infections and inequalities: The modern plagues. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  60. Federal Interagency Forum on Aging-Related Statistics. (2004, November). Older Americans 2004: Key indicators of well-being. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  61. Ferraro, K. F., & Ferraro, M. M. (1995). Social compensation in adulthood and later life. In R. A. Dixon & L. Backman (Eds.), Compensating for psychological deficits and declines: Managing losses and promoting gain (pp. 127–145). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  62. Frable, D. E., Platt, L., & Hoey, S. (1998). Concealable stigmas and positive self-perceptions: Feeling better around similar others. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 902–922.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Fredriksen, K. I. (1999) Family caregiving responsibilities among lesbians and gay men. Social Work, 44, 142–155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Gagnon, J. (1992). Epidemics and researchers: AIDS and the practice of social studies. In G. Herdt & S. Lindenbaum (Eds.), The time of AIDS (pp. 27–40). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  65. Gay and Lesbian Medical Association. (2001). Healthy people 2010: A companion document for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) health. San Francisco: Gay and Lesbian Medical Association.Google Scholar
  66. Greene, B. (Ed.). (1997). Ethnic and cultural diversity among lesbians and gay men. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  67. Grossman, A. H., D’Augelli, A. R., & Hershberger, S. L. (2000). Social support networks and lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults 60 years of age and older. Journal of Gerontology, 55, 171–179.Google Scholar
  68. Herdt, G. (1981). Guardians of the flutes: Idioms of masculinity. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  69. Herdt, G. (1987). The Sambia: Ritual and gender in New Guinea. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.Google Scholar
  70. Herdt, G. (Ed.). (1989). Gay and lesbian youth. New York: Harrington Park.Google Scholar
  71. Herdt, G. (1992). The time of AIDS. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  72. Herdt, G. (1997). Same sex, different cultures. New York: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  73. Herdt, G. (2000). Social change, sexual diversity, and tolerance for bisexuality in the United States. In A. D’Augelli & C. Patterson (Eds.), Gay, lesbian and bisexual youth: Research and intervention (pp. 267–283). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  74. Herdt, G., & Boxer, A. (1993). Children of Horizons. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  75. Herdt, G., & de Vries, B. (2004). Gay and lesbian aging: Research and future directions. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  76. Herdt, G., & Kertzner, R. (2006). I do, but I can’t: The impact of marriage denial on the mental health and sexual citizenship of lesbians and gay men in the United States. Sexuality Research and Social Policy: Journal of NSRC, 3(1), 33–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Herdt, G., & Koff, B. (2000). Something to tell you: The road families travel when a child is gay. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  78. Herdt, G., & Stoller, R. J. (1990). Intimate communications: Erotics and the study of culture. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  79. Herdt, G., Beeler, J., & Rawls, T. (1997). Life course diversity among older lesbians and gay men: A study in Chicago. Journal of Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Identities, 2, 231–247.Google Scholar
  80. Herek, G. (1995). Psychological heterosexism in the United States. In A. R. D’Augelli & C. Patterson (Eds.), Lesbian, gay, and bisexual identities over the life span (pp. 321–346). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  81. Herek, G. M. (2004). Beyond “homophobia”: Thinking about sexual stigma and prejudice in the twenty-first century. Sexuality Research & Social Policy, 1(2), 6–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Herrell, R. (1992). The symbolic strategies of Chicago’s gay and lesbian pride day parade. In G. Herdt (Ed.), Gay culture in America (pp. 225–252). Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  83. Hostetler, A. (2004). Single gay men: Cultural models of adult development, psychological well-being, and the meaning of being “single by choice.” Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Chicago.Google Scholar
  84. Huyck, M. H. (1989). Models of midlife. In R. A. Kalish (Ed.), Midlife loss: Coping strategies (pp. 10–34). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  85. Institute of Medicine. (1990). The second fifty years: Promoting health and preventing disability. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  86. Irvine, J. (2003). Talk about sex. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  87. Irvine, J. (2005). Anti-gay politics online: A study of sexuality and stigma on national websites. Sexuality Research and Social Policy, 2(1), 3–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Johnson, W., Hedges, L., Ramirez, G., Semaan, S., Norman, L., Sweat, M., et al. (2002). HIV prevention research for men who have sex with men: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 30, 118–129.Google Scholar
  89. Kahn, R. L., & Antonucci, T. C. (1980). Convoys over the life course: Attachment, roles, and social support. In P. Baltes & O. G. Brim (Eds.), Life-span development and behavior (pp. 253–286). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  90. Katchadourian, H. (1987). Fifty: Midlife in perspective. New York: Freeman.Google Scholar
  91. Kehoe, M. (1988). Lesbians over 60 speak for themselves. Binghamton, NY: Haworth Press.Google Scholar
  92. Kimmel, D. C. (1979). Life history interviews of aging gay men. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 10, 239–248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Kimmel, D. C. (2004). Issues to consider in study of midlife and older sexual minorities. In G. Herdt & B. de Vries (Eds.), Gay and lesbian aging (pp. 265–284). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  94. Kimmel, D. C., & Martin, D. L. (Eds.). (2001). Midlife and aging in gay America. Binghamton, NY: Harrington Park Press.Google Scholar
  95. Kimmel, D., & Sang, B. (1995). Lesbians and gay men in midlife. In. A. R. D’Augelli & C. Patterson (Eds.), Lesbian, gay and bisexual identities over the life span (pp. 517–534). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  96. Kitzinger, C., & Wilkinson, S. (2004). Social advocacy for equal marriage: The politics of “rights” and the psychology of “mental health.” Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 4, 173–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Krause, N. (1995). Assessing stress-buffering effects: A cautionary note. Psychology and Aging, 10, 518–526.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Krause, N., Liang, J., & Keith, V. (1990). Personality, social support, and psychological distress. Psychology and Aging, 5, 315–326.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Krieger, N. (1999). Embodying inequality: A review of concepts, measures, and methods for studying health consequences of discrimination. International Journal of Health Services 29, 295–352.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Kristiansen, H. W. (2004). Narrating past lives and present concerns: Old gay men in Norway. In G. Herdt & B. de Vries (Eds.), Gay and lesbian aging: Research and future directions (pp. 235–264). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  101. Laumann, E. O., Ellingson, S., Mahay, J., & Paik, A. (Eds.). (2004). The sexual organization of the city. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  102. Laumann, E. O., Gagnon, J. H., Michael, R. T., & Michaels, S. (1994). The social organization of sexuality: Sexual practices in the United States. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  103. Lennon, M. C., Martin, J. L., & Dean, L. (1990). The influence of social support on AIDS-related grief reaction among gay men. Social Science and Medicine, 31, 477–484.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Levine, J., Gagnon, J., & Nardi, P. (1997). In changing times. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  105. Lewin, E. (Ed.). (1996). Inventing lesbian cultures in America. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  106. The LGBT Religious Archives Network. (2005). Lyon/ Martin. Collections Catalog of The Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Religious Archives Network. Retrieved April 12, 2005, from http:// Scholar
  107. Litwak, E. (1985). Helping the elderly: The complementary roles of informal networks and formal systems. New York: Guildford Press.Google Scholar
  108. Litwak, E., & Szelenyi, I. (1969). Primary group structures and their functions: Kin, neighbors, and friends. American Sociological Review, 34, 465–481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Lubben, J. E. (1998). Assessing social networks among elderly populations. Family and Community Health, 11, 42–52.Google Scholar
  110. Mamo, L., & Mueller, M. R. (2003). Confronting inequalities in HIV/AIDS care in the USA. Critical Public Health, 13, 347–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Marigny Research Group. (2002). U.S. baby boomer market: From the Beatles to Botox (3rd ed.). New York: Market Scholar
  112. Martire, L. M., Schulz, R., Mittelmark, M. B., & Newsom, J. T. (1999). Stability and change in older adults’ social contact and social support: The cardiovascular health study. Journal of Gerontology, 54, 302–311.Google Scholar
  113. Mendes de Leon, C., Gold, D. T., Glass, T. A., Kaplan, L., & George, L. K. (2001). Disability as a function of social networks and support in elderly African Americans and Whites. Journal of Gerontology, 56, 179–190.Google Scholar
  114. Merrill, S. S., & Verbrugge, L. M. (1999). Health and disease in midlife. In S. L. Willis & J. D. Reid (Eds.), Life in the middle: Psychological and social development in middle age (pp. 77–103). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  115. Meyer, M. H. (Ed.). (2000). Care work: Gender, labor and the welfare state. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  116. Michaels, S. (1996). The prevalence of homosexuality in the United States. In R. P. Cabaj & T. Stein (Eds.), Textbook of homosexuality and mental health (pp. 43–63). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association Press.Google Scholar
  117. Miller, B., Townsend, A., Carpenter, E., Montgomery, R. V., Stull, D., and Young, R. F. (2001). Social support and caregiver distress: A replication analysis. The Journals of Gerontology: Psychological and Social Sciences, 56, S249-S256.Google Scholar
  118. Moran, J. (2000). Teaching sex: The shaping of adolescence in the 20th century. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University.Google Scholar
  119. Morgan, D. L. (1998). Facts and figures about the baby boom. Generations, 12, 10–15.Google Scholar
  120. Morgan, D. L., Neal, M. B., & Carder, P. (1996). The stability of core and peripheral networks over time. Social Networks, 19, 9–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Mueller, M. R. (1988). Physician administrators and the reorganization of federally sponsored treatment research for AIDS. Social Science and Medicine, 46, 1613–1622.Google Scholar
  122. Mueller, M. R. (2004). Clinical, technical, and social contingencies and the decisions of adults with HIV/AIDS to enroll in clinical trials. Qualitative Health Research, 14, 704–713.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Mullan, J. T. (1998). Aging and informal caregiving to people with HIV/AIDS. Research on Aging, 20, 712–738.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Murray, S. O. (1995). American gay. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  125. Myers, T., Allman, D., Jackson, E. A., & Orr, K. (1995). Variation in sexual orientations among men who have sex with men, and their current sexual practices. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 86, 384–388.Google Scholar
  126. Nardi, P. M. (1982). Alcohol treatment and the non-traditional “family” structures of gays and lesbians. Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 27, 83–89.Google Scholar
  127. Nardi, P. M. (1999). Gay men’s friendships: Invincible communities. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  128. National Academy on an Aging Society. (1999). Chronic conditions: A challenge for the 21st century. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  129. Neugarten, B. (Ed.). (1967). Middle age and aging. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  130. Newton, E. (1993). Cherry Grove, Fire Island. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  131. Oswald, R. F. (2002). Resilience within the family networks of lesbians and gay men: Intentionality and redefinition. Journal of Marriage and Family, 64, 374–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Parker, R., & Aggleton, P. (2003). HIV-and AIDS-related stigma and discrimination: A conceptual framework and implications for action. Social Science and Medicine, 57, 13–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Parker, R., Herdt, G., & Carballo, M. (1991). Sexual culture, HIV transmission, and AIDS research. Journal of Sex Research, 28, 77–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Parker, S., & de Vries, B. (1993). Patterns of friendship for women and men in same and cross-sex relationships. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 10, 617–626.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Paul, J., Catania, J., Pollak, L., Moskowitz, J., Canchola, J., Mills, T., et al. (2002). Suicide attempts among gay and bisexual men: Lifetime prevalence and antecedents. American Journal of Public Health, 92, 1338–1345.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Pearlin, L. I., Mullan, J. T., Aneshensel, C. S., Wardlaw, L., & Harrington, C. L. (1994). The structure and function of AIDS caregiving relationships. Psychosocial Rehabilitation Journal, 17(4), 57–67.Google Scholar
  137. Peters, G. R., & Kaiser, M. A. (1985). The role of friends and neighbors in providing social support. In W. J. Sauer & R. Coward (Eds.), Social support networks and the care of the elderly (pp. 123–158). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  138. Peterson, J. L. (1997). AIDS related risks and same-sex behaviors among African American men. In M. P. Levine, J. H. Gagnon, & P. M. Nardi (Eds.), In changing times (pp. 283–302). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  139. Petersen, K. J. (Ed.). (1996). Health care for lesbians and gay men: Confronting homophobia and heterosexism. New York: Harrington Press/Haworth Press.Google Scholar
  140. Pierce, G. R., Sarason, B. R., Sarason, I. G., Joseph, H. J., & Henderson, C. A. (1996). Conceptualizing and assessing social support in the context of the family. In G. R. Pierce, B. R. Sarason, & I. G. Sarason (Eds.), Handbook of social support and the family (pp. 3–23). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  141. Plath, D. (1980). Long engagement. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  142. Ponticelli, C. M. (Ed.). (1998). Gateways to improving lesbian health and health care. New York: Haworth Press.Google Scholar
  143. Quam, J. (1997). Social services for senior gay men and lesbians. New York: Haworth Press.Google Scholar
  144. Quam, J., & Whitford, G. S. (1992). Adaptation and agerelated expectations of older gay and lesbian adults. The Gerontologist, 32, 367–374.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Qureshi, H., & Walker, A. (1989). The caring relationship: Elderly people and their families. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  146. Rapp, R. (1982). Family and class in contemporary America: Notes toward an understanding and ideology. In B. Thorne & M. Yalom (Eds.), Rethinking the family (pp. 168–187). New York: Longman.Google Scholar
  147. Rawls, T. (2004). Disclosure and depression among older gay and homosexual men: Findings from the Urban Men’s Health Study. In G. Herdt & B. de Vries (Eds.), Gay and lesbian aging (pp. 117–143). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  148. Richards, T. A., & Folkman, S. (1997). Spiritual aspects of loss at the time of a partner’s death from AIDS. Death Studies, 21, 527–552.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Richardson, D. (1998). Sexuality and citizenship. Sociology, 32, 83–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Rubin, G. (1997). Elegy for the valley of kings: AIDS and the leather community in San Francisco, 1981–1996. In M. Levine, J. Gagnon, & P. Nardi (Eds.), Changing times (pp. 101–145). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  151. Russell, D. W., & Cutrona, C. E. (1991). Social support, stress, and depressive symptoms among the elderly: Test of a process model. Psychology and Aging, 6, 190–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Ryan, C., & Fulterman, D. (1998). Lesbian & gay youth: Care and counseling. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  153. Sang, B., Warshaw, J., & Smith, A. J. (Eds.). (1991). Lesbians at midlife: The creative transition. San Francisco: Spinsters Book Company.Google Scholar
  154. Scarce, M. (1999). Smearing the queer: Medical bias in the health care of gay men. New York: Haworth Press.Google Scholar
  155. Schmitz, M. F., & Crystal, S. (2000). Social relations, coping, and psychological distress among persons with HIV/AIDS. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 30, 665–683.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Schneider, B. (1997). Owning the epidemic: The impact of AIDS on small-city lesbian and gay communities. In M. Levine, J. Gagnon, & P. Nardi (Eds.), Changing times (pp. 145–170). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  157. Shanas, E. (1980). Older people and their families: The new pioneers. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 42, 9–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Shilts, R. (1997). And the band played on. New York: St Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  159. Skinner, W. F., & Otis, M. D. (1996). Drug and alcohol use among lesbian and gay people in a southern U.S. sample: Epidemiological, comparative, and methodological findings from the Trilogy Project. Journal of Homosexuality, 30(3), 59–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Skolnick, A. (1979). Public images, private realities: The American family in popular culture and social science. In V. Tufte & B. Myerhoff (Eds.), Changing images of the family. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  161. Skolnick, A. (1991). Embattled paradise: The American family in an age of uncertainty. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  162. Solarz, A. L. (Ed.). (1999). Lesbian health: Current assessment and directions for the future. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  163. Stacey, J. (1990). Brave new families. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  164. Stein, A. (1997). Sex and sensibility: Stories of a lesbian generation. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press:Google Scholar
  165. Stryker, S., & van Buskirk, J. (1996). Gay by the bay. San Francisco: Chronicle Books.Google Scholar
  166. Szinovacz, M. (1998). Grandparents today: A demographic profile. The Gerontologist, 38, 37–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Tesch, N. A., Nehrke, M. F., & Whitbourne, S. K. (1989). Social relationships, psychosocial adaptation, and in transitional relocation of elderly men. The Gerontologist, 29, 517–523.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Teunis, N., & Herdt, G. (Eds.), (in press). Sexual inequalities. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  169. Thornhill, M., & Martin, J. (2005). 50 things every marketer needs to know about boomers over 50. Richmond, VA: Boomer Project and Survey Sampling International.Google Scholar
  170. Trupin, L., & Rice, D. P. (1995, June). Health status, medical care use, and number of disabling conditions in the United States (Disability Statistics Abstract No. 9). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research.Google Scholar
  171. Turner, H. A., Catania, J. A., & Gagnon, J. (1994). The prevalence of informal caregiving to persons with AIDS in the United States: Caregiver characteristics and their implications. Social Science and Medicine, 38, 1543–1552.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Unger, J. B., McAvay, G., Bruce, M. L., Berman, L., & Seeman, T. (1999). Variation in the impact of social network characteristics on physical functioning in elderly persons: MacArther studies on successful aging. Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 54, 245–251.Google Scholar
  173. Vacha, K. (Ed.). (1985). QuietFire: Memoirs of older gay men. Trumansburg, NY: Crossing Press.Google Scholar
  174. Vaillant, G. (2002). Aging well. Boston: Little, Brown, and Co.Google Scholar
  175. Van Damme, M. (2004). Mothers in two types of lesbian families: Stigma experiences, supports, and burdens. Journal of Family Nursing, 10, 450–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Verbrugge, L. M. (1989). The twain meet: Empirical explanations of sex differences in health and mortality. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 30, 282–304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Verbrugge, L. M., Gruber-Baldini, A. L., & Fozard, J. L. (1996). Age differences and age changes in activities: Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 51, S30-S41.Google Scholar
  178. Weston, K. (1991). Families we choose: Lesbians, gays, and kinship. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  179. White, J. M. (1991). Dynamics of family development: A theoretical perspective. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  180. Willis, S. L., & Reid, J. D. (Eds.). Life in the middle: Psychological and social development in middle age. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  181. Wolfson, E. (2004). Why marriage matters. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  182. Wortman, C. B., & Silver, R. C. (1989). The myths of coping with loss. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57, 349–357.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Wu, Z., & Pollard, M. S. (1998). Social support among unmarried childless elderly persons. Journal of Gerontology, 53, 324–335.Google Scholar
  184. Yep, G. A., Lovaas, K. E., & Elia, J. P. (2003). A critical appraisal of assimilationist and radical ideologies underlying same-sex marriage in LGBT communities in the United States. Journal of Homosexuality, 45(1-), 45–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Zhang, Z., & Hayward, M. (2001). Childlessness and the psychological well-being of older persons. Journal of Gerontology, 56, 311–320.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Judith C. Barker
    • 1
  • Gilbert Herdt
    • 2
  • Brian de Vries
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Anthropology, History & Social MedicineUniversity of California, San FranciscoSan Francisco
  2. 2.National Sexuality Resource CenterSan Francisco
  3. 3.Gerontology ProgramsSan Francisco State UniversitySan Francisco

Personalised recommendations