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Animal level risk factors associated with Babesia and Theileria infections in cattle in Egypt

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Abstract

In present study, blood samples were collected randomly from 439 cows at three main regions of Egypt (northern, central and southern). Molecular diagnosis of Babesia and Theileria infections by PCR amplification of DNA (gene) fragments, then cloning and sequencing of the positive samples were conducted. A questionnaire was created to imply the assumed risk factors and logistic regression statistical analysis was carried out to appraise the potential factors on the animal level. The results revealed that 49 (11.16%) and 45 (10.25%) cattle were infected with Babesia and Theileria parasites, respectively. B. bigemina (7.97%) and T. annulata (9.56%) were the most prevalent parasites. For Babesia sp., final multivariate logistic regression analysis showed a significant association between the infection and irregular use of antiprotozoal drugs (P = 0.003; OR: 0.28; 95% CI: 0.12–0.65), management practice (P = 0.029; OR: 6.66; 95% CI: 1.21–36.59) and ecology area (P = 0.006; OR: 5.62; 95% CI: 1.63–19.31). However, for Theileria sp. infection, animal breed (P = 0.003; OR: 0.44; 95% CI:.45–1.00) and irregular use of antiprotozoal drugs (P<0.001; OR: 4.22; 95% CI: 2.62–5.60) were the potential risk factors. The results of the present study declare the prevalent bovine Babesia and Theileria sp. in Egypt based on molecular description. An impression on the potential risk factors associated with infections was obtained. Recognition of the potential risk factors associated with tick borne disease may be helpful to construct the best preventive measures.

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Correspondence to Sabry El-Khodery.

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Rizk, M.A., Salama, A., El-Sayed, S.AES. et al. Animal level risk factors associated with Babesia and Theileria infections in cattle in Egypt. Acta Parasit. 62, 796–803 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1515/ap-2017-0096

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