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Combined strength and aerobic training increases transforming growth factor-β1 in patients with type 2 diabetes


OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of a combined strength and aerobic training program on pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and transforming growth factor-β1 in patients with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Ten patients with type 2 diabetes, aged 55.5 (5) years [median (IQR)] participated in a supervised systematic exercise training program which included aerobic exercise and strength training, undertaken four days per week for eight weeks. RESULTS: The training program increased transforming growth factor-β1 concentration (+50.4%) and reduced high sensitivity C reactive protein levels (−24.1%) without altering the levels of interleukin-6, interleukin-10, interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α. Additional improvements were also achieved in anthropometric characteristics, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c: −11.8%), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR: −15%) and physical fitness parameters (stress test: +26.6%, upper muscle strength: +32.4% and lower muscle strength: +48.9%). CONCLUSION: A combined strength and aerobic exercise program has a potential anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory impact which most likely reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease and improves the health status in patients with type 2 diabetes.


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Correspondence to Savvas P. Tokmakidis.

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Touvra, AM., Volaklis, K.A., Spassis, A.T. et al. Combined strength and aerobic training increases transforming growth factor-β1 in patients with type 2 diabetes. Hormones 10, 125–130 (2011).

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Key words

  • Cytokines
  • Exercise
  • Training effects
  • Transforming growth factor-β1
  • Type 2 diabetes