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Female Sex and Alzheimer’s Risk: The Menopause Connection


Along with advanced age and apolipoprotein E (APOE)-4 genotype, female sex is a major risk factor for developing late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Considering that AD pathology begins decades prior to clinical symptoms, the higher risk in women cannot simply be accounted for by their greater longevity as compared to men. Recent investigation into sex-specific pathophysiological mechanisms behind AD risk has implicated the menopause transition (MT), a midlife neuroendocrine transition state unique to females. Commonly characterized as ending in reproductive senescence, many symptoms of MT are neurological, including disruption of estrogen-regulated systems such as thermoregulation, sleep, and circadian rhythms, as well as depression and impairment in multiple cognitive domains. Preclinical studies have shown that, during MT, the estrogen network uncouples from the brain bioenergetic system. The resulting hypometabolic state could serve as the substrate for neurological dysfunction. Indeed, translational brain imaging studies demonstrate that 40–60 year-old perimenopausal and postmenopausal women exhibit an AD-endophenotype characterized by decreased metabolic activity and increased brain amyloid-beta deposition as compared to premenopausal women and to age-matched men. This review discusses the MT as a window of opportunity for therapeutic interventions to compensate for brain bioenergetic crisis and combat the subsequent increased risk for AD in women.

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Correspondence to Lisa Mosconi.

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Scheyer, O., Rahman, A., Hristov, H. et al. Female Sex and Alzheimer’s Risk: The Menopause Connection. J Prev Alzheimers Dis 5, 225–230 (2018). https://doi.org/10.14283/jpad.2018.34

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Key words

  • Perimenopause
  • women
  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • early detection
  • brain imaging