Feasibility of Weighted Vest Use During A Dietary Weight Loss Intervention and Effects on Body Composition and Physical Function in Older Adults
While intentional weight loss in older adults with obesity yields clinically important health benefits there is a need to minimize the negative effects of weight loss on concomitant loss of muscle mass and strength. Data show wearing weighted vests during exercise improves lean mass and lower extremity strength, however the efficacy of wearing a weighted vest during a period of weight loss to mitigate muscle and strength loss is not known.
This study examined the feasibility of daily weighted vest use during a dietary weight loss intervention, and examined effects of vest use on body composition and physical function in well-functioning older adults with obesity.
Randomized, controlled pilot study.
Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center in Winston-Salem, NC.
37 older (age=65-79 yrs), obese (BMI=30-40 kg/ m2) sedentary men and women.
22-week behavioral diet intervention (targeting 10% weight loss, 1100–1300 kcals/day) with (Diet+Vest; n=20) or without (Diet; n=17) weighted vest use (goal of 10 hours/ day with weight added weekly according to individual loss of body mass).
Body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and measures of physical function, mobility, and muscle strength/power.
Average weighted vest use was 6.7±2.2 hours/day and the vest-wear goal of 10 hrs/day was achieved for 67±22% of total intervention days. Five participants reported adverse events from wearing the vest (all back pain or soreness). Both groups lost a similar amount of weight (Diet= -11.2±4.4 kg; Diet+Vest = -11.0±6.3 kg; p<0.001), with no differences between groups (p=0.25). Fat mass, lean mass, and % body fat decreased significantly (p<0.0001), with no differences between groups. Compared to Diet+Vest, the Diet intervention resulted in greater decreases in leg power (p<0.02), with no other between group differences in physical function.
This pilot study showed that vest use during dietary weight loss is feasible and safe in well-functioning older adults with obesity. Larger studies are needed to definitively determine whether external replacement of lost weight during caloric restriction may preserve lower extremity muscle strength and power.
Key wordsCaloric restriction weighted vest body composition physical function weight loss
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