Endoscopic ultrasonography in the diagnosis and staging of pancreatic neoplasms
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Background. Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of death among Americans. Twenty-eight thousand cases of pancreatic cancer are diagnosed annually and about the same number of patients die of pancreatic cancer every year. Most patients with pancreatic cancer are diagnosed when the tumor is 3 cm or more in diameter. Most pancreatic cancers are metastatic at the time of diagnosis and the median survival is only 18–20 mo. Overall, actual 5-yr survival is about 10% and has not changed much over several decades. Curative surgical resection is currently believed to offer the only chance of long-term survival in these patients. Difficulty in the early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer remains a major obstacle in improving outcomes in these patients. Screening for pancreatic cancer is currently not recommended. However, recent developments in endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and cytological EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) allow early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer with histological confirmation. EUS-FNA in conjunction with helical CT also provides reliable preoperative staging of pancreatic tumors. EUS with FNA therefore appears to be a promising tool in the fight against pancreatic cancer.
KeywordsPancreatic Cancer Pancreatic Carcinoma Pancreatic Tumor Helical Compute Tomography Creatic Cancer
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