Lipid metabolism in pregnancy and its consequences in the fetus and newborn

Abstract

During early pregnancy there is an increase in body fat accumulation, associated with both hyperphagia and increased lipogenesis. During late pregnancy there is an accelerated breakdown of fat depots, which plays a key role in fetal development. Besides using placental transferred fatty acids, the fetus benefits from two other products: glycerol and ketone bodies. Although glycerol crosses the placenta in small proportions, it is a preferential substrate for maternal gluconeogenesis, and maternal glucose is quantitatively the main substrate crossing the placenta. Enhanced ketogenesis under fasting conditions and the easy transfer of ketones to the fetus allow maternal ketone bodies to reach the fetus, where they can be used as fuels for oxidative metabolism as well as lipogenic substrates. Although maternal cholesterol is an important source of cholesterol for the fetus during early gestation, its importance becomes minimal during late pregnancy, owing to the high capacity of fetal tissues to synthesize cholesterol. Maternal hypertriglyceridemia is a characteristic feature during pregnancy and corresponds to an accumulation of triglycerides not only in very low-density lipoprotein but also in low- and high-density lipoprotein. Although triglycerides do not cross the placental barrier, the presence of lipoprotein receptors in the placenta, together with lipoprotein lipase, phospholipase A2, and intracellular lipase activities, allows the release to the fetus of polyunsaturated fatty acids transported as triglycerides in maternal plasma lipoproteins. Normal fetal development needs the availability of both essential fatty acids and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, and the nutritional status of the mother during gestation has been related to fetal growth. However, excessive intake of certain long chain fatty acids may cause both declines in arachidonic acid and enhanced lipid peroxidation, reducing antioxidant capacity.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. 1.

    Herrera, E., Palacín, M., Martín, A., and Lasunción, M. A. (1985). Diabetes 34(Suppl.2), 42–46.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Lasunción, M. A., Lorenzo, J., Palacín, M., and Herrera, E. (1987). Biol. Neonate. 51, 86–93.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Hay, W. W. Jr. (1994). Horm. Res. 42, 215–222.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Knipp, G. T., Audus, K. L., and Soares, M. J. (1999). Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 38, 41–58.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Sibley, C., Glazier, J., and D’Souza, S. (1997). Exp. Physiol. 82, 389–402.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Herrera, E., Bonet, B., and Lasunción, M. A. (1998). In: Fetal and neonatal physiology. Polin, R. A. and Fox, W. W. (eds.). W.B. Saunders: Philadelphia.

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Herrera, E. (2002). Placenta 23(Suppl. A), S9-S19.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Napoli, C., D’Armiento, F. P., Mancini, F. P., Postiglione, A., Witztum, J. L., Palumbo, G., and Palinski, W. (1997). J. Clin. Invest. 100, 2680–2690.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Napoli, C., Witztum, J. L., Calara, F., De Nigris, F., and Palinski, W. (2000). Circ. Res. 87, 946–952.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Palinski, W., D’Armiento, F. P., Witztum, J. L., De Nigris, F., Casanada, F., Condorelli, M., Silvestre, M., and Napoli, C. (2001). Circ. Res. 89, 991–996.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Hytten, F. E. and Leitch, I. (1971). The physiology of human pregnancy, 2nd ed. Blackwell Science: Oxford, UK.

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Villar, J., Cogswell, M., Kestler, E., Castillo, P., Menendez, R., and Repke, J. T. (1992). Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 167, 1344–1352.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Alvarez, J. J., Montelongo, A., Iglesias, A., Lasunción, M. A., and Herrera, E. (1996). J. Lipid Res. 37, 299–308.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Knopp, R. H., Bonet, B., Lasunción, M. A., Montelongo, A., and Herrera, E. (1992). In: Perinatal biochemistry. Herrera, E. and Knopp, R. H. (eds.). CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL.

    Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Bonet, B. and Herrera, E. (1991). Endocrinology 129, 210–216.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Martín, A. and Herrera, E. (1991). Isr. J. Med. Sci. 27, 442–448.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Elliott, J. A. (1975). Eur. J. Clin. Invest. 5, 159–163.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Sivan, E., Homko, C. J., Chen, X. H., Reece, E. A., and Boden, G. (1999). Diabetes 48, 834–838.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Williams, C. and Coltart, T. M. (1978). Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 85, 43–46.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Freinkel, N., Herrera, E., Knopp, R. H., and Ruder, H. J. (1970). In: Early diabetes. Camarini Davalos, R. and Cole, H. S. (eds.). Academic: New York.

    Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Knopp, R. H., Herrera, E., and Freinkel, N. (1970). J. Clin. Invest. 49, 1438–1446.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Martin-Hidalgo, A., Holm, C., Belfrage, P., Schotz, M. C., and Herrera, E. (1994). Am. J. Physiol. 266, E930-E935.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Mampel, T., Villarroya, F., and Herrera, E. (1985). Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 131, 1219–1225.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Mason, T. M. (1998). Crit. Rev. Clin. Lab. Sci. 35, 461–487.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Chaves, J. M. and Herrera, E. (1978). Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 85, 1299–1306.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Chaves, J. M. and Herrera, E. (1980). Biol. Neonate 38, 139–145.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Herrera, E., Knopp, R. H., and Freinkel, N. (1969). Endocrinology 84, 447–450.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Young, J. B. and Landsberg, L. (1979). J. Clin. Invest. 64, 109–116.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Herrera, E., Gomez Coronado, D., and Lasunción, M. A. (1987). Biol. Neonate 51, 70–77.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Zorzano, A., Lasunción, M. A., and Herrera, E. (1986). Metabolism 35, 297–303.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Zorzano, A. and Herrera, E. (1984). Int. J. Biochem. 16, 263–267.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Herrera, E., Knopp, R. H., and Freinkel, N. (1969). J. Clin. Invest. 48, 2260–2272.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Scow, R. O., Chernick, S. S., and Brinley, M. S. (1964). Am. J. Physiol. 206, 796–804.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Herrera, E., Lasunción, M. A., Martín, A., and Zorzano, A. (1992). In: Perinatal biochemistry. Herrera, E. and Knopp, R. H. (eds.). CRC: Boca Raton, FL.

    Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Alonso de la Torre, S. R., Serrano, M. A., and Medina, J. M. (1992). Pediatr. Res. 32, 317–323.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Shambaugh, G. E. III, Metzger, B. E., and Radosevich, J. A. (1992). In: Perinatal biochemistry. Herrera, E. and Knopp, R. H. (eds.). CRC: Boca Raton, FL.

    Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Patel, M. S., Johnson, C. A., Ratan, R., and Owen, D. E. (1975). J. Neurochem. 25, 905–908.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    King, J. C., Butte, N. F., Bronstein, M. N., Kopp, L. E., and Lindquist, S. A. (1994). Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 59(Suppl.), 439S-445S.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Lopez Luna, P., Maier, I., and Herrera, E. (1991). Biol. Neonate 60, 29–38.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    López-Luna, P., Muñoz, T., and Herrera, E. (1986). Life Sci. 39, 1389–1393.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Moore, B. J. and Brassel, J. A. (1984). J. Nutr. 114, 1548–1559.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Beaton, G. H., Beare, J., Ryv, M. H., and McHewry, E. W. (1954). J. Nutr. 54, 291–313.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Lederman, S. A., Paxton, A., Heymsfield, S. B., Wang, J., Thornton, J., and Pierson, R. N. Jr. (1999). Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 180, 235–240.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    Herrera, E., Lasunción, M. A., Gomez Coronado, D., Aranda, P., Lopez Luna, P., and Maier, I. (1988). Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 158, 1575–1583.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    Sohlström, A., Kabir, N., Sadurskis, A., and Forsum, E. (1994). Br. J. Nutr. 71, 317–333.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    Murphy, S. P. and Abrams, B. F. (1993). Am. J. Public Health 83, 1161–1163.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    Piers, L. S., Diggavi, S. N., Thangam, S., Van Raaij, J. M. A., Shetty, P. S., and Hautvast, J. G. A. J. (1995). Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 61, 501–513.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    Lederman, S. A. and Rosso, P. (1980). Growth 44, 77–88.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    Prentice, A. M. and Golberg, R. (2000). Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 71, 1226S-1232S.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    Herrera, E., Lasunción, M. A., Palacín, M., Zorzano, A., and Bonet, B. (1991). Diabetes 40(Suppl. 2), 83–88.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  51. 51.

    Palacín, M., Lasunción, M. A., Asunción, M., and Herrera, E. (1991). Metabolism 40, 534–539.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    Fain, J. M. and Scow, R. O. (1966). Am. J. Physiol. 210, 19–25.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  53. 53.

    Braun, J. E. A. and Severson, D. L. (1992). Biochem. J. 287, 337–347.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  54. 54.

    Lasunción, M. A. and Herrera, E. (1983). Biochem. J. 210, 639–643.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  55. 55.

    Knopp, R. H., Boroush, M. A., and O’Sullivan, J. B. (1975). Metabolism 24, 481–493.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  56. 56.

    Otway, S. and Robinson, D. S. (1968). Biochem. J. 106, 677–682.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  57. 57.

    Hamosh, M., Clary, T. R., Chernick, S. S., and Scow, R. O. (1970). Biochim. Biophys. Acta 210, 473–482.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  58. 58.

    Ramirez, I., Llobera, M., and Herrera, E. (1983). Metabolism 32, 333–341.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  59. 59.

    Kinnunen, P. K., Unnérus, H. A., Ranta, T., Ehnholm, C., Nikkilä, E. A., and Seppälä, M. (1980). Eur. J. Clin. Invest. 10, 469–474.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  60. 60.

    Burt, R. L. (1960). Obstet. Gynecol. 15, 460–464.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  61. 61.

    Buch, I., Hornnes, P. J., and Kuhl, C. (1986). Acta Endocrinol. (Copenh.) 112, 263–266.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  62. 62.

    Muñoz, C., López-Luna, P., and Herrera, E. (1992). Rev. Esp. Fisiol. 48, 97–102.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  63. 63.

    Muñoz, C., López-Luna, P., and Herrera, E. (1995). Biol. Neonate 68, 282–291.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  64. 64.

    Crombach, G., Siebolds, M., and Mies, R. (1993). Clin. Pharmacokinet. 24, 89–100.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  65. 65.

    Fisher, P. M., Hamilton, P. M., Sutherland, H. W., and Stowers, J. M. (1974). Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 81, 285–290.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  66. 66.

    Herrera, E., Muñoz, C., Lopez-Luna, P., and Ramos, P. (1994). Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. 27, 2499–2519.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  67. 67.

    Freinkel, N. (1980). Diabetes 29, 1023–1035.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  68. 68.

    Cousins, L. (1991). Diabetes 40, 39–43.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  69. 69.

    Girard, J., Burnol, A.-F., Leturque, A., and Ferré, P. (1987). Biochem. Soc. Trans. 15, 1028–1030.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  70. 70.

    Leturque, A., Ferré, P., Satabin, P., Kervran, A., and Girard, J. (1980). Diabetologia 19, 521–528.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  71. 71.

    Ramos, P. and Herrera, E. (1995). Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 269, E858-E863.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  72. 72.

    Herrera, E., Ramos, P., and Martín, A. (1990). In: Frontiers in diabetes research: lessons from animal diabetes III. Shafrir, E. (ed.). Smith-Gordon, London.

    Google Scholar 

  73. 73.

    Montelongo, A., Lasunción, M. A., Pallardo, L. F., and Herrera, E. (1992). Diabetes 41, 1651–1659.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  74. 74.

    Wasfi, I., Weinstein, I., and Heimberg, M. (1980). Endocrinology 107, 584–596.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  75. 75.

    Wasfi, I., Weinstein, I., and Heimberg, M. (1980). Biochim. Biophys. Acta 619, 471–481.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  76. 76.

    Iglesias, A., Montelongo, A., Herrera, E., and Lasunción, M. A. (1994). Clin. Biochem. 27, 63–68.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  77. 77.

    De Hertogh, R., Thomas, K., Bietlot, Y., Vanderheyden, I., and Ferin, J. (1975). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 40, 93–101.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  78. 78.

    Sparre, L. S., Carlström, A., von Schoultz, B., and Carlström, K. (1995). Gynecol. Obstet. Invest. 40, 145–150.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  79. 79.

    Knopp, R. H., Zhu, X., and Bonet, B. (1994). Atherosclerosis 110(Suppl.), S83-S91.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  80. 80.

    Knopp, R. H. and Zhu, X. D. (1997). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 82, 3952–3954.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  81. 81.

    Peinado-Onsurbe, J., Staels, B., Vanderschueren, D., Bouillon, R., and Auwerx, J. (1993). Horm. Res. 40, 184–188.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  82. 82.

    Brinton, E. A. (1996). Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 16, 431–440.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  83. 83.

    Alsat, E., Bouali, Y., Goldstein, S., Malassine, A., Laudat, M. H., and Cedard, L. (1982). Mol. Cell Endocrinol. 28, 439–453.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  84. 84.

    Alsat, E., Bouali, Y., Goldstein, S., Malassine, A., Berthelier, M., Mondon, F., and Cedard, L. (1984). Mol. Cell Endocrinol. 38, 197–203.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  85. 85.

    Cummings, S. W., Hatley, W., Simpson, E. R., and Ohashi, M. (1982). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 54, 903–908.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  86. 86.

    Furuhashi, M., Seo, H., Mizutani, S., Narita, O., Tomoda, Y., and Matsui, N. (1989). Mol. Endocrinol. 3, 1252–1256.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  87. 87.

    Henson, M. C., Pepe, G. J., and Albrecht, E. D. (1992). Endocrinology 130, 1698–1706.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  88. 88.

    Malassine, A., Besse, C., Roche, A., Alsat, E., Rebourcet, R., Mondon, F., and Cedard, L. (1987). Histochemistry 87, 457–464.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  89. 89.

    Bonet, B., Brunzell, J. D., Gown, A. M., and Knopp, R. H. (1992). Metabolism 41, 596–603.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  90. 90.

    Elphick, M. C. and Hull, D. (1977). J. Physiol. (Lond.) 273, 475–487.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  91. 91.

    Rotherwell, J. E. and Elphick, M. C. (1982). J. Dev. Physiol. 4, 153–159.

    Google Scholar 

  92. 92.

    Farrugia, W., Aitken, M. A., Van Dunné, F., Wong, M. H., Brennecke, S. P., Scott, K. F., and Rice, G. E. (1993). Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1166, 77–83.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  93. 93.

    Rice, G. E., Wong, M. H., Farrugia, W., and Scott, K. F. (1998). J. Endocrinol. 157, 25–31.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  94. 94.

    Biale, Y. (1985). Acta Obstet. Gynecol. Scand. 64, 111–114.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  95. 95.

    Kaminsky, S., D’Souza, S. W., Massey, R. F., Smart, J. L., and Sibley, C. P. (1991). Biol. Neonate 60, 201–206.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  96. 96.

    Mochizuki, M., Morikawa, H., Ohga, Y., and Tojo, S. (1975). Endocrinol. Jpn. 22, 123–129.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  97. 97.

    Coleman, R. A. and Haynes, E. B. (1987). J. Lipid Res. 28, 1335–1341.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  98. 98.

    Benassayag, C., Vallette, G., Delorme, J., Savu, L., and Nunez, E. A. (1980). Oncodev. Biol. Med. 1, 27–32.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  99. 99.

    Benassayag, C., Mignot, T. M., Haourigui, M., Civel, C., Hassid, J., Carbonne, B., Nunez, E. A., and Ferre, F. (1997). J. Lipid Res. 38, 276–286.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  100. 100.

    Herrera, E., Martín, A., Montelongo, A., Domínguez, M., and Lasunción, M. A. (1992). Avanc. Diabet. 5(Suppl. 1), 73–84.

    Google Scholar 

  101. 101.

    Kitajima, M., Oka, S., Yasuhi, I., Fukuda, M., Rii, Y., and Ishimaru, T. (2001). Obstet. Gynecol. 97, 776–780.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  102. 102.

    Knopp, R. H., Magee, M. S., Walden, C. E., Bonet, B., and Benedetti, T. J. (1992). Diabetes Care 15, 1605–1613.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  103. 103.

    Skryten, A., Johnson, P., Samsioe, G., and Gustafson, A. (1976). Acta Obstet. Gynecol. Scand. 55, 211–215.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  104. 104.

    Hrab, R. V., Hartman, H. A., and Cox, R. H. Jr. (1994). Teratology 50, 19–26.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  105. 105.

    Soria, A., Bocos, C., and Herrera, E. (2002). J. Lipid Res. 43, 74–81.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  106. 106.

    Elphick, M. C., Hull, D., and Broughton-Pipkin, F. (1979). J. Dev. Physiol. 1, 31–45.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  107. 107.

    Leat, W. M. F. and Harrison, F. A. (1980). J. Dev. Physiol. 2, 257–274.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  108. 108.

    Hull, D. and Elphick, M. C. (1984). Biol. Neonate 45, 151–158.

    Google Scholar 

  109. 109.

    Hull, D. and Stammers, J. P. (1985). Biochem. Soc. Trans. 13, 821–822.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  110. 110.

    Elphick, M. C., Hudson, D. G., and Hull, D. (1975). J. Physiol. (Lond.) 252, 29–42.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  111. 111.

    Hershfield, M. S. and Nemeth, A. M. (1968). J. Lipid Res. 9, 460–468.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  112. 112.

    Portman, O. W., Behrman, R. E., and Soltys, P. (1969). Am. J. Physiol. 216, 143–147.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  113. 113.

    Hummel, L., Schirrmeister, W., Zimmermann, T., and Wagner, H. (1974). Biol. Neonate 24, 298–305.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  114. 114.

    Koren, Z. and Shafrir, W. (1964). Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 116, 411–414.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  115. 115.

    Jones, C. T. (1976). Biochem. J. 156, 357–365.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  116. 116.

    Coleman, R. A. (1989). Semin. Perinatol. 13, 180–191.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  117. 117.

    Kuhn, D. C. and Crawford, M. (1986). Prog. Lipid Res. 25, 345–353.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  118. 118.

    Campbell, F. M., Gordon, M. J., and Dutta-Roy, A. K. (1996). Mol. Cell. Biochem. 155, 77–83.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  119. 119.

    Campbell, F. M., Gordon, M. J., and Dutta-Roy, A. K. (2000). Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 209, 1011–1017.

    Google Scholar 

  120. 120.

    Haggarty, P., Page, K., Abramovich, D. R., Ashton, J., and Brown, D. (1997). Placenta 18, 635–642.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  121. 121.

    Lafond, J., Moukdar, F., Rioux, A., Ech-Chadli, H., Brissette, L., Robidoux, J., Masse, A., and Simoneau, L. (2000). Placenta 21, 661–669.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  122. 122.

    Shand, J. H. and Noble, R. C. (1985). Biol. Neonate 48, 299–306.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  123. 123.

    Zimmermann, T., Hummel, L., Möllr, U., and Kinzl, U. (1979). Biol. Neonate 36, 109–112.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  124. 124.

    Tulenko, T. N. and Rabinowitz, J. L. (1981). Am. J. Physiol. 240, E65-E71.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  125. 125.

    Crawford, M. A., Hassan, A. G., Williams, G., and Whitehouse, W. L. (1976). Lancet i, 452–453.

    Google Scholar 

  126. 126.

    Hummel, L., Schwartze, A., Schirrmeister, W., and Wagner, H. (1976). Acta Biol. Med. Ger. 35, 1635–1641.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  127. 127.

    Thomas, C. R. and Lowy, C. (1982). J. Dev. Physiol. 4, 163–173.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  128. 128.

    Elphick, M. C., Filshie, G. M., and Hull, D. (1978). Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 85, 610–618.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  129. 129.

    Chaves, J. M. and Herrera, E. (1980). Biol. Neonate 37, 172–179.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  130. 130.

    Seeds, A. E., Leung, L. S., Stys, J. J., Clark, K. E., and Russell, P. T. (1980). Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 138, 604–608.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  131. 131.

    Gilbert, M. (1977). Pediatr. Res. 11, 95–99.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  132. 132.

    Palacín, M., Lasunción, M. A., and Herrera, E. (1987). Pediatr. Res. 22, 6–10.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  133. 133.

    Battaglia, F. C. and Meschia, C. (1978). Physiol. Rev. 58, 499–527.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  134. 134.

    Zorzano, A. and Herrera, E. (1986). Int. J. Biochem. 18, 583–587.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  135. 135.

    Felig, P. and Lynch, V. (1970). Science 170, 990–992.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  136. 136.

    Persson, B. and Lunell, N. O. (1975). Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 122, 737–745.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  137. 137.

    Butte, N. F. (2000). Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 71(5 Suppl.), 1256S-1261S.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  138. 138.

    Miodovnik, M., Lavin, J. P., Harrington, D. J., Leung, L. S., Seeds, A. E., and Clark, K. E. (1982). Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 144, 585–593.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  139. 139.

    Adam, P. A. J., Raiha, N. L., and Kekomaki, M. (1975). Acta Paediatr. Scand. 64, 17–24.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  140. 140.

    Drew, J. H., Abell, D. A., and Beischer, H. A. (1978). Obstet. Gynecol. 51, 129–132.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  141. 141.

    Churchill, J. A., Berendes, H. W., and Nemore, J. (1969). Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 105, 257–268.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  142. 142.

    Morris, F. H., Boyd, R. D. H., Makowski, E. L., Meschia, G., and Battaglia, F. C. (1974). Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 145, 879–883.

    Google Scholar 

  143. 143.

    Sabata, V., Wolf, H., and Lausmann, S. (1968). Biol. Neonate 13, 7–17.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  144. 144.

    Arola, Ll., Palou, A., Remesar, X., and Alemany, M. (1982). Horm. Metab. Res. 14, 364–371.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  145. 145.

    Scow, R. O., Chernick, S. S., and Smith, B. B. (1958). Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 98, 833–835.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  146. 146.

    Boyd, R. D., Morriss, F. H. J., Meschia, G., Makowski, E. L., and Battaglia, F. C. (1973). Am. J. Physiol. 225, 897–902.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  147. 147.

    Williamson, D. H. (1981). In: Fetal growth retardation. Van Assche, F. A., Robertson, W. B., and Renaer, M. C. (eds.). Churchill Livingstone: Edinburg.

    Google Scholar 

  148. 148.

    Thaler, M. M. (1972). Nat. New Biol. 236, 140–141.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  149. 149.

    Dierks-Ventling, C. (1971). Biol. Neonate 19, 426–433.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  150. 150.

    Ohvo-Rekilä, H., Ramstedt, B., Leppimäki, P., and Slotte, J. P. (2002). Prog. Lipid Res. 41, 66–97.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  151. 151.

    Martinez-Botas, J., Suárez, Y., Ferruelo, A. J., Gómez-Coronado, D., and Lasunción, M. A. (1999). FASEB J. 13, 1359–1370.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  152. 152.

    Suarez, Y., Fernandez, C., Ledo, B., Ferruelo, A. J., Martin, M., Vega, M. A., and Gomez-Coronado, D. L. M. A. (2002). Eur. J. Biochem. 269, 1761–1771.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  153. 153.

    Mauch, D. H., Nägler, K., Schumacher, S., et al. (2001). Science 294, 1354–1357.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  154. 154.

    Brown, M. S. and Goldstein, J. L. (1997). Cell 89, 331–340.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  155. 155.

    Schroepfer, G. J. (2000). Physiol. Rev. 80, 361–554.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  156. 156.

    Peet, D. J., Janowski, B. A., and Mangelsdorf, D. J. (1998). Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. 8, 571–575.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  157. 157.

    Chevallier, F. (1964). Biochim. Biophys. Acta 84, 316–319.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  158. 158.

    Connor, W. E. and Lin, D. S. (1967). J. Lipid Res. 8, 558–564.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  159. 159.

    Pitkin, R. M., Connor, W. E., and Lin, D. S. (1972). J. Clin. Invest. 51, 2584–2592.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  160. 160.

    Yount, N. Y. and McNamara, D. J. (1991). Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1085, 82–90.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  161. 161.

    Belknap, W. M. and Dietschy, J. M. (1988). J. Clin. Invest. 82, 2077–2085.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  162. 162.

    Woollett, L. A. (1996). J. Lipid Res. 37, 1246–1257.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  163. 163.

    Jurevics, H. A., Kidwai, F. Z., and Morell, P. (1997). J. Lipid Res. 38, 723–733.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  164. 164.

    Haave, N. C. and Innis, S. M. (2001). Metabolism 50, 12–18.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  165. 165.

    Levin, M. S., Pitt, A. J., Schwartz, A. L., Edwards, P. A., and Gordon, J. I. (1989). Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1003, 293–300.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  166. 166.

    McNamara, D. J., Quackernbush, F. W., and Rodés, J. (1972). J. Biol. Chem. 25, 5805–5810.

    Google Scholar 

  167. 167.

    Ness, G. C., Miller, J. P., Moffler, M. H., Woods, L. S., and Harris, H. B. (1979). Lipids 14, 447–450.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  168. 168.

    Calandra, S. (1975). Eur. J. Clin. Invest. 5, 27–31.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  169. 169.

    Feingold, K. R., Wiley, T., Moser, A. H., Lear, S. R., and Wiley, M. H. (1983). J. Lab. Clin. Med. 101, 256–263.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  170. 170.

    Munilla, M. A. and Herrera, E. (1997). J. Nutr. 127, 2239–2245.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  171. 171.

    Roux, C., Wolf, C., Nulliez, N., et al. (2000). Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 71, 1270S-1279S.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  172. 172.

    Barbu, V., Roux, C., Lambert, D., Duduis, R., Gardette, J., Maziere, J. C., Maziere, C., Lefant, E., and Polonovski, J. (1988). J. Nutr. 118, 774–779.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  173. 173.

    Gaoua, W., Wolf, C., Chevy, F., Ilien, F., and Roux, C. (2000). J. Lipid Res. 41, 637–646.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  174. 174.

    Parker, C. R. Jr., Deahl, T., Drewry, P., and Hankins, G. (1983). Early Hum. Dev. 8, 289–295.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  175. 175.

    Ortega, R. M., Gaspar, M. J., and Cantero, M. (1996). J. Vitam. Nutr. Res. 66, 250–257.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  176. 176.

    Nakai, T., Tamai, T., Yamada, S., et al. (1981). Artery 9, 132–150.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  177. 177.

    Devi, C. S., Sastry, B. S., Kumar, M., Raju, G. R., and Suryaprabha, K. (1982). Clin. Chim. Acta 123, 169–173.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  178. 178.

    Neary, R. H., Kilby, M. D., Kumpatula, P., Game, F. L., Bhatnagar, D., Durrington, P. N., and O’Brien, P. M. S. (1995). Clin. Sci. 88, 311–318.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  179. 179.

    Ramon y Cajal, J., Pocovi, M., Romero, M. A., Jimenez, D., Martinez, H., and Grande, F. (1988). Artery 15, 109–117.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  180. 180.

    Winkel, C. A., Gilmore, J., MacDonald, P. C., and Simpson, E. R. (1980). Endocrinology 107, 1892–1898.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  181. 181.

    Wyne, K. L. and Woollett, L. A. (1998). J. Lipid Res. 39, 518–530.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  182. 182.

    Clandinin, M. T., Chappell, J. E., Leong, S., Heim, T., Swyer, P. R., and Chance, G. W. (1980). Early Hum. Dev. 4, 121–129.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  183. 183.

    Foreman-van Drongelen, M. M. H. P., Van Houwelingen, A. C., Kester, A. D. M., Hasaart, T. H. M., Blanco, C. E., and Hornstra, G. (1995). J. Pediatr. 126, 611–618.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  184. 184.

    Leaf, A. A., Leightfield, M. J., Casteloe, K. L., and Crawford, M. A. (1992). Early Hum. Dev. 30, 183–191.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  185. 185.

    Neuringer, M. and Connor, W. E. (1986). Nutr. Rev. 44, 285–294.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  186. 186.

    Sauerwald, T. U., Hachey, D. L., Jensen, C. L., Chen, H., Anderson, R. E., and Heird, W. C. (1997). Pediatr. Res. 41, 183–187.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  187. 187.

    Demmelmair, H., Rinke, U., Behrendt, E., Sauerwald, T., and Koletzko, B. (1995). J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 21, 31–36.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  188. 188.

    Salem, N. Jr., Wegher, B., Mena, P., and Uauy, R. (1996). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 49–54.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  189. 189.

    Carnielli, V. P., Wattimena, D. H., Luijendijk, I. H. T., Boerlage, A., Degenhart, H. J., and Sauer, P. J. J. (1996). Pediatr. Res. 40, 169–174.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  190. 190.

    Szitanyi, P., Koletzko, B., Mydlilova, A., and Demmelmair, H. (1999). Pediatr. Res. 45, 669–673.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  191. 191.

    Uauy, R., Mena, P., Wegher, B., Nieto, S., and Salem, N. Jr. (2000). Pediatr. Res. 47, 127–135.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  192. 192.

    Su, H. M., Huang, M. C., Saad, N. M. R., Nathanielsz, P. W., and Brenna, J. T. (2001). J. Lipid Res. 42, 581–586.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  193. 193.

    Su, H. M., Corso, T. N., Nathanielsz, P. W., and Brenna, J. T. (1999). J. Lipid Res. 40, 1304–1311.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  194. 194.

    Jumpsen, J., Van Aerde, J., and Clandinin, M. T. (1997). In: Placental function and fetal nutrition. Battaglia, F. C. (ed.). Nesttec, Vevey/Lippincott-Raven: Philadelphia.

    Google Scholar 

  195. 195.

    Crastes de Paulet, P., Sarda, P., Boulot, P., and Crastes de Paulet, A. (1992). In: Essential fatty acids and infant nutrition. Ghisolfi, J. and Putet, G. (eds.). John Libbey Eurotext: Paris.

    Google Scholar 

  196. 196.

    Al, M. D. M., Hornstra, G., Van der Schouw, Y. T., Bulstra-Ramakers, M. T. E. W., and Huisjes, H. J. (1990). Early Hum. Dev. 24, 239–248.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  197. 197.

    Matorras, R., Perteagudo, L., Sanjurjo, P., and Ruiz, J. I. (1999). Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol. 83, 179–184.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  198. 198.

    Van Houwelingen, A. C., Sorensen, J. D., Hornstra, G., Simonis, M. M. G., Boris, J., Olsen, S. F., and Secher, N. J. (1995). Br. J. Nutr. 74, 723–731.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  199. 199.

    Connor, W. E., Lowensohn, R., and Hatcher, L. (1996). Lipids 31, S183-S187.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  200. 200.

    Uauy-Dagach, R. and Mena, P. (1995). Clin. Perinatol. 22, 157–175.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  201. 201.

    Brenner, R. R. and Peluffo, R. O. (1969). Biochim. Biophys. Acta 176, 471–479.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  202. 202.

    Innis, S. M. (1991). Prog. Lipid Res. 30, 39–103.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  203. 203.

    Simopoulos, A. P. (1991). Am. J.Clin. Nutr. 54, 438–463.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  204. 204.

    Sprecher, H. (1981). Prog. Lipid Res. 20, 13–22.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  205. 205.

    Willis, A. L. (1984). In: Present knowledge in nutrition. Olson, R. E. (ed.). The Nutrition Foundation: Washington, DC.

    Google Scholar 

  206. 206.

    Amusquivar, E., Rupérez, F. J., Barbas, C., and Herrera, E. (2000). J. Nutr. 130, 2855–2865.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  207. 207.

    Garg, M. L., Thomson, A. B. R., and Clandinin, M. T. (1990). J. Lipid Res. 31, 271–277.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  208. 208.

    Raz, A., Kamin-Belsky, N., Przedecki, F., and Obukowicz, M. G. (1997). J. Nutr. Biochem. 8, 558–565.

    Google Scholar 

  209. 209.

    Christiansen, E. N., Lund, J. S., Rortveit, T., and Rustan, A. C. (1991). Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1082, 57–62.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  210. 210.

    Koletzko, B. and Braun, M. (1991). Ann. Nutr. Metab. 35, 128–131.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  211. 211.

    Leaf, A. A., Leighfield, M. J., Costeloe, K. L., and Crawford, M. A. (1992). J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 14, 300–308.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  212. 212.

    Woltil, H. A., Van Beusekom, C. M., Schaafsma, A., Muskiet, F. A. J., and Okken, A. (1998). Eur. J. Pediatr. 157, 146–152.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  213. 213.

    Carlson, S. E., Cooke, R. J., Rhodes, P. G., Peeples, J. M., Werkman, S. H., and Tolley, E. A. (1991). Pediatr. Res. 30, 404–412.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  214. 214.

    Carlson, S. E., Werkman, S. H., and Pepples, J. M. (1993). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90, 1073–1077.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  215. 215.

    Reaven, P., Parthasarathy, S., Grasse, B. J., Miller, E., Steinberg, D., and Witztum, J. L. (1993). J. Clin. Invest. 91, 668–676.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  216. 216.

    Lussier-Cacan, S., Dubreuil-Quidoz, S., Roederer, G., Leboeuf, N., Boulet, L., De Langavant, G. C., Davignon, J., and Naruszewicz, M. (1993). Arterioscler. Thromb. 13, 1790–1797.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  217. 217.

    Reaven, P., Grasse, B. J., and Tribble, D. L. (1994). Arterioscler. Thromb. 14, 557–566.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  218. 218.

    Abbey, M., Belling, G. B., Noakes, M., Hirata, F., and Nestel, P. J. (1993). Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 57, 391–398.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  219. 219.

    Berry, E. M., Eisenberg, S., Haratz, D., Friedlander, Y., Norman, Y., Kaufman, N. A., and Stein, Y. (1991). Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 53, 899–907.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  220. 220.

    Nenseter, M. S. (1996). Curr. Opin. Lipidol. 7, 8–13.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  221. 221.

    Mori, T. A. and Beilin, L. J. (2001). Curr. Opin. Lipidol. 12, 11–17.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  222. 222.

    Eritsland, J., Arnesen, H., Seljeflot, I., and Hostmark, A. T. (1995). Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 61, 831–836.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  223. 223.

    Wander, R. C. and Du, S. L. (2000). Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 72, 731–737.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  224. 224.

    Higdon, J. V., Du, S. H., Lee, Y. S., Wu, T., and Wander, R. C. (2001). J. Lipid Res. 42, 407–418.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  225. 225.

    Higdon, J. V., Liu, J., Du, S. H., Morrow, J. D., Ames, B. N., and Wander, R. C. (2000). Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 72, 731–737.

    Google Scholar 

  226. 226.

    Cho, S.-H. and Choi, Y. (1994). Lipids 29, 47–52.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  227. 227.

    Haegele, A. D., Briggs, S. P., and Thompson, H. J. (1994). Free Radic. Biol. Med. 16, 111–115.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  228. 228.

    Mazière, C., Dantin, F., Conte, M. A., Degonville, J., Ali, D., Dubois, F., and Mazière, J. C. (1998). Biochem. J. 336, 57–62.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  229. 229.

    Song, J. H., Fujimoto, K., and Miyazawa, T. (2000). J. Nutr. 130, 3028–3033.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  230. 230.

    Eriksson, U. J. and Borg, L. A. H. (1991). Diabetologia 34, 325–331.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  231. 231.

    Viana, M., Herrera, E., and Bonet, B. (1996). Diabetologia 39, 1041–1046.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  232. 232.

    Simán, C. M. and Eriksson, U. J. (1997). Diabetes 46, 1054–1061.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  233. 233.

    Reece, E. A. and Wu, Y. K. (1997). Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 176, 790–797.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  234. 234.

    Wentzel, P., Welsh, N., and Eriksson, U. J. (1999). Diabetes 48, 813–820.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  235. 235.

    Cederberg, J. and Eriksson, U. J. (2001). Diabetologia 44, 766–774.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  236. 236.

    Jain, S. K. (1999). Diabetes Care 22, 1242–1244.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  237. 237.

    Ludvigsson, J., Samuelsson, U., Johansson, C., and Stenhammar, L. (2001). Diabetes Metab. Res. Rev. 17, 131–136.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  238. 238.

    Claycombe, K. J. and Meydani, S. N. (2001). Mutat. Res. Fundam. Mol. Mech. Mutagen. 475, 37–44.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  239. 239.

    Bourre, J. M., Bonneil, M., Dumont, O., Piciotti, M., Calaf, R., Portugal, H., Nalbone, G., and Lafont, H. (1990). Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1043, 149–152.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  240. 240.

    Bourre, J. M., Bonneil, M., Dumont, O., Nalbone, G., and Lafont, H. (1988). Biochim. Biophys. Acta 960, 458–461.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  241. 241.

    Navarro, M. D., Periago, J. L., Pita, M. L., and Hortelano, P. (1994). Lipids 29, 845–849.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  242. 242.

    Girón, M. D., Mataix, F. J., Faus, M. J., and Suárez, M. D. (1989). Biochem. Internat. 19, 645–656.

    Google Scholar 

  243. 243.

    Periago, J. L., Suarez, M. D., and Pita, M. L. (1990). J. Nutr. 120, 986–994.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  244. 244.

    Rao, C. V., Zang, E., and Reddy, B. (1993). Lipids 28, 441–447.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  245. 245.

    Scaccini, C., Nardini, M., D’Aquino, M., Gentili, V., Di Felice, M., and Tomassi, G. (1992). J. Lipid Res. 33, 627–633.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  246. 246.

    Öztezcan, S., Toker, G., and Uysal, M. (1996). Biochem. Arch. 12, 13–18.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Dr. Emilio Herrera.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Herrera, E. Lipid metabolism in pregnancy and its consequences in the fetus and newborn. Endocr 19, 43–55 (2002). https://doi.org/10.1385/ENDO:19:1:43

Download citation

Key Words

  • Lipid metabolism
  • pregnancy
  • placenta
  • fatty acids
  • cholesterol
  • triglycerides