The protective effect of black cumin (Nigella sativa=NS) on cadmium-induced oxidative stress was studied in rats. The rats were randomly divided into three experimental groups: A (conrol), B (Cd treated), and C (Cd+NS treated), each containing 10 animals. The Cd-treated and Cd+NS-treated groups were injected subcutaneously daily with CdCl2 dissolved in isotonic NaCl in the amount of 2 mL/kg for 30 d, resulting in a dosage of 0.49 mg Cd/kg/d. The control group was injected with only isotonic NaCl (2 mL/kg/d) throughout the experiment (for 30 d). Three days prior to induction of CdCl2, the Cd+NS-treated group received a daily intraperitoneal injection of 0.2 mL/kg NS until the end of the study. Cd treatment increased significantly the malondialdehyde levels in plasma and erythrocyte (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively) and also increased significantly the antioxidant levels (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase) (p<0.05) compared to the control group. Cd+NS treatment decreased significantly the elevated malondialdehyde levels in plasma and erythrocyte (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively) and also reduced significantly the enhanced antioxidant levels (p<0.05). Cd treatment increased significantly the activity of iron levels (p<0.05) in the plasma compared to the control group. Cd+NS treatment decreased the activity of iron levels (p<0.05) in the plasma compared to the Cd-treated group. In the control group with no treatment, histology of erythrocytes was normal. In the Cd-treated group, there were remarkable membrane destruction and hemolytic changes in erythrocytes. In the Cd+NS treated group, these changes were less than in the Cd-treated group. Our results show that N. sativa exerts a protective effect against cadmium toxicity.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
A. F. Morselt, Environmental pollutant and diseases, Toxicology 70, 1–132 (1991).
WHO, Environmental Health Criteria 134, Cadmium, World Health Organization, Geneva (1992).
US Departmant of Health Services, Toxicological profile for cadmium, Draft for public comment, A gency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, GA (1997).
M. A. Amoruso, G. Witz, and B. D. Goldstein, Enhancement of rat and human phagocyte superoxide anion radical production by cadmium in vitro, Toxicol. Lett. 10, 133–138 (1982).
Z. Zhong, W. Troll, K. L. Koenig, and K. Frenkel. Carcinogenic sulfide salts of nickel and cadmium induce H2O2 formation by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes, cancer Res. 20, 7564–7570 (1990).
T. Ochi, F. Otkusa, K. Takahashi, and M. Oshawa, Glutathione and metallothioneins as cellular defense against cadmium toxicity in culture chinese hamster cells, Chem. Biol. Interact. 65, 1–14 (1988).
S. J. Stohs and D. Bagchi, Oxidative mechanism in the toxicity of metal ions, Free Radical Biol. Med. 18, 321–336 (1995).
M. Sugiyama. Role of cellular antioxidants in metal-induced damage, Cell. Biol. Toxicol. 10, 1–22 (1994).
J. W. Bauman, J. Liu, and C. D. Klaassen, Production of meallothionein and heat-shock proteins in response to metals, Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 21, 15–22 (1993).
C. Simpkins, T. Lloyd, S. Li, and S. Balderman, Metallothionein-induced increase in mitochondrial inner membrane permeability, J. Surg. Res. 75, 30–34 (1998).
S. Sarkar, P. Yadav, R. Trivedi, A. K. Bansal, and D. Bhatnagar, Cadmium-induced lipid peroxidation and the status of the antioxidant system in rat tissues, J. Trace Elements Med. Biol. 9, 144–149 (1995).
M. M. Kostić, B. Ognjanović, R. V. Zikić, et al., Cadmium-induced changes of antioxidant and metabolic status in red blood cells of rats: in vivo effects, Eur. J. Haematol. 51, 86–92 (1993).
R. V. Zikić, A. Stajn, B. Ognjanović, et al., The effect of cadmium and selenium on the antioxidant enzyme activities in rat heart, J. Environ. Pathol. Toxicol. Oncol. 17, 259–264 (1998).
M. M. Kostić, B. Ognjanović, R. V. Zikić, et al., Effects of Cadmium on antioxidant enzymes, glutathione and lipid peroxidation in brown adipose tissue, Iugoslov Physiol. Pharmacol. Acta 29, 137–145 (1993).
M. W. Fariss, Cadmium toxicity: unique cytoprotective properties of alpha tocopheryl succinate in hepatocytes, Toxicology 69, 63–77 (1991).
K. E. H. El-Tahir, M. M. S. Ashour, and M. M. Al-Harbi, The respiratory effects of the volatile oil of the black seed (Nigella sativa) in guinea pigs: elucidation of the mechanism(s) of action. Gen. Pharmacol. 24, 1115–1122 (1993).
A. El-Kadi and O. Kandil, The black seed (Nigella sativa) and immunity: its effect on human T cell subset, Fed. Proc. 46, 1222 (1987).
M. S. M. Hanafy and M. E. Hatem, Studies of antimicrobial activity of Nigella sativa seed (black cumin). J. Entopharmacol. 34, 275–278 (1991).
A. Zaoui, Y. Cherrah, M. A. Lacaille-Dubois, et al., Diuretic and hypotensive effects of Nigella sativa in the spontaneously hypertensive rat, Therapeutics 55, 379–382 (2000).
M. K. Turkdogan, Z. Agaoglu, Z. Yener, et al., The role of antioxidant vitamins (C and E), selenium and Nigella sativa in the prevention of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis in rabbits: new hopes, Dtsch. Tierarztl. Wochenschr. 108, 71–73 (2001).
M. Kanter, I. Meral, Z. Yener, et al., Partial regeneration/proliferation of the beta-cells in the islets of langerhans by Nigella sativa L. in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 201, 213–219 (2003).
M. Kanter, O. Coskun, A. Korkmaz, and S. Oter, Effects of Nigella sativa on oxidative stress and β-cell damage in streptozoto cin-induced diabetic rats, Anat. Rec. 279, 685–691 (2004).
M. Kanter, M. Yoruk, A. Koç, et al., Effect of cadmium exposure on morphological aspects of pancreas, weights of fetus and placenta in streptozotocin-induced diabetic pregrant rats, Biol. Trace Element Res. 93, 189–200 (2003).
H. H. Draper and M. Hadley, Malondialdehyde determination as index of lipid peroxidation, Methods Enzymol. 186, 421–431 (1990).
J. M. McCord and I. Fridovich, Superoxide dismutase. An enzymatic function for erythrocupreine (hemocupreine), J. Biol. Chem. 244, 6049–6056 (1969).
E. Beutler, Catalase, in Red Cell Metabolism: A Manual of Bichemical Methods, E. Beutler, ed., Grune and Stratton, New York, pp. 105–106 (1982).
J. Maral, K. Puget, and A. M. Michelson, Comparative study of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase levels in erythrocytes of different animals, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 77, 1525–1535 (1977).
H. P. Misra and I. Fridovich, The role of superoxide anion in autoxidation of epinephrine and simple assay for superoxide dismutase, J. Biol. Chem. 247, 3170–3175 (1972).
B. I. Ognjanović, S. Z. Pavlovic, R. V. Zikić, et al., The effect of olive oil on the plasma transaminase activities and blood hematological values of rats exposed to cadmium, Kragujevac J. Sci. 22, 93–99 (2000).
R. V. Zikić, A. S. Stajn, B. I. Ognjanović, et al., Activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in erythrocytes and transaminases in the plasma of carps (Cyprinus carpio L.) exposed to cadmium, Physiol Res. 46, 391–396 (1997).
S. Z. Pavlovic, B. I. Ognjanović, A. S. Stajn, et al., The effect of coenzyme Q10 on blood ascorbic acid, vitamin e, an lipid peroxide in chronic cadmium intoxication, J. Environ. Pathol. Toxicol. Oncol. 20, 133–140 (2001).
R. V. Zikić, A. S. Stajn, S. Z. Pavlovic, et al., Activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in erythrocytes and plasma transaminases of goldfish (Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch.) exposed to cadmium. Physiol. Res. 50, 105–111 (2001).
B. I. Ognjanović, S. Z. Pavlovic, S. D. Maletic, et al., Protective influence of vitamin e on antioxidant defense system in the blood rats terated with cadmium, Physiol. Res. 52, 563–570 (2003).
Z. A. Shaikh, T. T. Vu, and K. Zaman, Oxidative stress as a mechanism of chronic cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity and renal toxicity and protection by antioxidants, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 154, 256–263 (1999).
S. Sarkar, P. Yadav, and D. Bhatnagar, Lipid peroxidative damage on cadmium exposure and alteration in antioxidant system in rat erythrocytes: a study with relation to time, J. Trace Elements Med. Biol. 11, 8–13 (1997).
H. Shi, N. Noguchi, and E. Niki, Comparative study on dynamics of antioxidative action of α-tocopheryl hydroquinone, ubiquinol, and α-tocopherol against lipid peroxidation, Free Radical Biol. Med. 27, 334–346. (1999).
A. Skoczynska and R. Smolik, The effect of combined exposure to lead and cadmium on serum lipids and lipid peroxides levels in rat, Int. J. Occup. Med. Environ. Health 7, 263–271 (1994).
S. Sarkar, P. Yadav, and D. Bhatnager, Lipid peroxidative damage on cadmium exposure and alterations in antioxidant system in rat erythrocytes: a study with relation to time, Biometals 11, 153–157 (1998).
S. J. Stohs, D. Bagchi, E. Hassoun, et al., Oxidative mechanisms in the toxicity of chromium and cadmium ions, J. Environ. Pathol. Toxicol. Oncol. 19, 201–213 (2000).
E. Beytut, A. Yuce, N. N. Kamiloglu, et al., Role of ditary vitamin E in cadmium-induced oxidative damage in rabbit's blood, liver and kidneys, Int. J. Vitam. Nutr. Res. 73, 351–355 (2003).
A. Shukla, G. S. Shukla, and R. C. Srimal, Cadmium-induced alterations in blood-brain barrier permeability and its possible correlation with decreased microvessel antioxidant potential in rat, Hum. Exp. Toxicol. 15, 400–405 (1996).
T. Hamada A. Tanimato, N. Arima, et al., Pathological study of splenomegaly associated with cadmium-induced anemia in rats, Sangyo Ika Daigaku Zasshi 30, 2343–2349 (2000).
About this article
Cite this article
Kanter, M., Coskun, O. & Gurel, A. Effect of black cumin (Nigella sativa) on cadmium-induced oxidative stress in the blood of rats. Biol Trace Elem Res 107, 277–287 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1385/BTER:107:3:277
- Nigella sativa
- oxidative stress